Full Project – A study on the negative effects of pesticide on the health of people
From time immemorial, man has been captivated towards controlling diseases; forestalling the destruction of his property and his agricultural product by pests.
The scientist undertook in one way or the other to control these pests thereby bringing to the ideas and knowledge to halt the infestation of pests which led to the formulation of chemical substances which is termed “pesticide”
However, pesticide is defined as any substance or mixture of substances intended to prevent, destroy or control pests. These pests includes: vector of human or animal disease, unwanted species of plants and animals that interfere with the production, processing, storage, transportation or marketing of food, agricultural commodities, wood and wood products or animal feed stuffs (Olurunda, 2013).
According to Mohammed et al, (2016) defined pesticides as a toxic chemicals substance or a mixture of substance or biological agents that are internationally released into the environment in order to avert, deter, control and / or kill and destroy populations of insects, weeds, rodents, fungi or other harmful pests.
He also added that pesticides work by attracting, seducing and then destroying the pest.
In view of this, pest can be broadly defined as “the plant or animals that jeopardize our food, health and/ or comfort, pesticides represent the only group of chemicals that are purposely applied to the environment with aim to suppress plants and animal pest and to protect agricultural and industrial products. However, the majority of pesticides is not specifically targeting the pest only and during their application they also affect non – target plants and animals.
Consequently, the use of pesticide has increased many folds over the past few decades, according to an estimate about 5.2 million pounds of pesticides are used worldwide per year, the use of pesticides for pest mitigation has become a common practice all around the world.
Their use is not only restricted to agricultural fields but they are also employed in homes in form of sprays, poisons and powders for controlling cockroaches , mosquitoes, rats, fleas, ticks and other harmful bugs. Due to this reasons, pesticides are frequently found in our food commodities in addition to their presence in the air.
Agricultural expertise believed that without pesticides, the production of crops would decrease to about 30% while livestock production will also drop to atleast 25%.
In the same vein, preventive medicine has led an emphasis that pesticides has helped a lot in preventing diseases thereby maintaining or prolonging well – being of an individual (Pitan, 2008).
It is also estimated that about 30% of major human diseases have been reduced via the use of pesticides in controlling pests that transmit diseases causing organisms and its suitable outbreak of pest contributed immensely in the control of vectors of public health importance such as mosquitoes, housefly, etc.
The negative effects that is associated with the use of this pesticide emanated during the process of using the pesticide to control pests and the major aim of controlling the pests is to achieve prevention, suppression and eradication without regarding its hazard to public health.
In spite of pesticides benefits, pesticides application result in several consequential effects in the environment which can never be ignored. Repeated application leads to loss of biodiversity, many are not easily degradable, they persist in soil, leach to ground water and surface water and contaminate wide environment depending on their chemical properties they can enter the organism, bioaccumulation in food chain and consequently influence human health.
Nevertheless, there has been a renewed emphasis on preventive measures both in the community and industrial level. In addition, judicious and effective use of this pesticide should be encouraged in Umuegara community, Ohaukwu Local Government Area so as to curtail its negative effects on human health and the environment.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The Negative Effects of pesticides has been a serious public health problem among the people of Umuegara community. Most workers that engaged themselves with the application of pesticides are mostly prone to the hazards and it contributes to illness and death of people in the community. Based on the already established fact, some of the negative effects of this pesticides includes; respiratory problems, dermatitis, food contamination that leads to food poisoning, environmental pollution, environmental degradation and destruction of ecosystem including non – targeted organisms. Some of these health problems occurs as a result of ignorance, non – adherence to instructions or lack of pesticides in controlling pests.
1.3 Statement of the Purpose
The statements of the purpose of this study is to carry out an Investigation on the Negative Effects of Pesticides in Umuegara community from the formulation to the application of the pesticides and provide a useful information for the future improvement in the said community and the country at large.
1.4 Scope of the Study
This research work on a study on the negative effects of pesticide is designed and limited to cover only Umuegara Community. Therefore, the researcher deems it necessary to focus his work on the negative effects of pesticide in Umuegara Community and ways through which it can be forestalled.
1.5 Significance of the Study
- To provides information on how to prevent the hazardous effects of pesticide on human and environment.
- It shall provide a basis for further study on the subject especially to the social community.
- It shall reveal the levels of hazards associated with pesticides use in Umuegara community.
- It shall also health educate the society on those negative effects, its preventive and control measures.
- It is also expected to make discovery of the factors contributing to those hazardous effects.
1.5 Justification of the Study
This research work is justified as necessary due to the fact that it helps to understand the negative effects associated with the use of pesticide in Umuegara Community, and possibly to provide solutions on how to prevent them.
1.7 Broad Objective
With regard to the above stated problem, this research was designed to ascertain the negative effects of pesticides among people and their environment in Umuegara community and correct wrong impressions and equally provide possible effective solutions to the effect of pesticides in Umuegara community, the state and country at large.
1.8 Specific Objective
The specific objectives of this study are as follows;
- To ascertain the level of acceptance of pesticides by the people of Umuegara
- To identify the factors militating against the effective use of pesticides among the people of Okpuitumo ommunity.
- To assess the negative effects of pesticides on health of the people and their environment.
- To find out the morbidity rate as a result of pesticide use in Umuegara
1.9 Research Question
- What are the level of awareness and acceptance of the use of pesticides in Umuegara Community?
- Are there factors militating against the effective use of pesticide in Umuegara Community?
- Does pesticides really have precautions effects on health?
- How does pesticides pollution cause some disease in Umuegara Community?
1.10 Research Hypothesis
- There is awareness of pesticide use in Umuegara
- Non – adherence to instruction, lack of training and wrong application of pesticides militate against the effective use of pesticides in Umuegara
- There are some negative effects associated with the use of pesticide in Umuegara
- There are some diseases caused by those negative effects of pesticides in Umuegara
1.11 Operational Definition
- Pest: these are those small animals mainly rodents and insects surrounding in search of food, household materials, books, electronics, furniture’s and human blood.
- Pesticide: This refers to any chemicals substance or mixture of substance intended to prevent, destroy or control pests.
- Pest control: These are measures, methods, procedures and tactics geared towards ensuring total eradication of pest in our environment.
- Hazards: These are the conditions, situations, chemical properties or substance that can potentially pose threat to man.
- Contamination: this is the process of making materials or surface unclean or unsuitable for its intended purpose usually by the addition or attachment of undesirable foreign substances.
- Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): These are equipment or materials which must be worn by pesticide applicators before handling pesticide.
- Pesticide Formulation: the method of diluting or mixing the pesticides evenly in appropriate state for application through appropriate machinery that is convenient, efficient and safe for use that will also provide the desired result.
- Toxicity: this is the capacity of a substance to produce injury.
- Residual effect: this is a condition where by chemical kill the insects immediately and continue to kill them for a considerable period of time.
- Non – residual: this act for some hours
- Lethal dose (LD50): this is the amount of the toxicant required to kill 50% of the test animals to which it is expressed as milligrams of toxicant per kilogram of body weight per (mg/kg)
- Lethal concentration (LC50): this is the concentration in a medium that kills 50% of the organisms.
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Full Project – A study on the negative effects of pesticide on the health of people