FACTOR THAT INFLUENCES LOW IMMUNIZATION COVERAGE IN GINDIRI PANYA BIKWIN WARD KARIM LAMIDO LGA TARABA STATE.
Background to the Study
Immunization coverage is a critical aspect of public health, and several factors influence its low rates. According to Rainey et al. (2011), one of the primary factors is the lack of access to healthcare services. This is particularly prevalent in low-income and rural areas where healthcare facilities are scarce or non-existent. Additionally, the cost of vaccines and the associated medical services can be prohibitive for many families, further reducing immunization coverage.
Another significant factor is the level of education and awareness about the importance of immunization. As per a study by Brown et al. (2012), individuals with lower levels of education are less likely to have their children immunized. This is often due to a lack of understanding about the benefits of vaccines and the risks of not getting vaccinated. Furthermore, misinformation and myths about vaccines can also lead to hesitancy, contributing to lower immunization rates.
Healthcare system factors also play a crucial role. According to a study by Wiysonge et al. (2017), inefficient healthcare systems, characterized by poor management, inadequate infrastructure, and lack of trained healthcare professionals, can significantly hinder immunization coverage. In many developing countries, these systemic issues are a major barrier to achieving high immunization rates.
Cultural beliefs and practices can also influence immunization coverage. A study by Streefland et al. (1999) found that in some cultures, vaccines are viewed with suspicion and fear, leading to lower immunization rates. These cultural beliefs can be deeply ingrained and difficult to change, posing a significant challenge to increasing immunization coverage.
Political instability and conflict are other factors that can negatively impact immunization coverage. According to a report by the World Health Organization (2018), in regions affected by conflict, immunization services are often disrupted, leading to low coverage rates. Additionally, political instability can lead to a lack of funding and resources for immunization programs.
The factors influencing low immunization coverage are multifaceted and complex, involving socio-economic, cultural, political, and healthcare system factors. Addressing these issues requires a comprehensive and multi-pronged approach, focusing on improving access to healthcare, increasing education and awareness about vaccines, strengthening healthcare systems, and addressing cultural beliefs and political instability.
Statement of the Problem
Immunization coverage in Nigeria has been a significant concern for public health officials and policymakers. Despite the availability of vaccines and immunization programs, the coverage remains low. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Nigeria has one of the lowest immunization coverage rates in the world, with only 57% of children aged 12-23 months fully immunized in 2018 (WHO, 2018). This low coverage rate poses a significant risk to the health of the population, particularly children who are most vulnerable to vaccine-preventable diseases.
Several factors contribute to the low immunization coverage in Nigeria. One of the primary factors is the lack of access to healthcare facilities, particularly in rural areas. A study by Antai (2009) found that children living in rural areas were less likely to be fully immunized compared to those in urban areas. This disparity is largely due to the lack of healthcare facilities and trained healthcare workers in rural areas.
Another significant factor is the high level of poverty in the country. According to the World Bank, Nigeria has one of the highest poverty rates in the world, with 40% of the population living below the poverty line (World Bank, 2019). This high poverty rate limits the ability of families to access and afford immunization services, leading to low coverage rates.
Cultural beliefs and misconceptions about vaccines also play a role in the low immunization coverage. A study by Jegede (2007) found that misconceptions about vaccines, such as the belief that they cause infertility, were prevalent in certain communities in Nigeria. These misconceptions can lead to vaccine hesitancy and refusal, contributing to the low coverage rates.
The lack of political will and commitment to immunization programs is another factor. Despite the availability of vaccines and funding from international organizations, the Nigerian government has not prioritized immunization programs. This lack of commitment is evident in the low budget allocation for immunization programs and the lack of enforcement of immunization laws (Clements et al., 2008).
The low immunization coverage in Nigeria is a complex issue influenced by several factors, including lack of access to healthcare, poverty, cultural beliefs, and lack of political commitment. Addressing these issues is critical to improving immunization coverage and protecting the health of the population.
Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of the study is to examine the factor that influences low immunization coverage in Gindiri Panya Bikwin Ward Karim Lamido LGA Taraba State.
- To identify the key factors that contribute to low immunization coverage in various regions.
- To analyze the impact of these identified factors on the overall immunization coverage.
- To evaluate the effectiveness of current strategies in place to increase immunization coverage.
- To propose evidence-based interventions to address the identified factors contributing to low immunization coverage.
The research questions are stated below:
- What are the key factors that contribute to low immunization coverage in various regions?
- How do these identified factors impact the overall immunization coverage?
- How effective are the current strategies in place to increase immunization coverage?
- What evidence-based interventions can be proposed to address the identified factors contributing to low immunization coverage?
The hypothetical statement is buttressed below:
Ho: Evidence-based interventions has no effect on immunization coverage
H1: Evidence-based interventions has effect on immunization coverage
- Significance of the Study
The significance of the study on the factors that influence low immunization coverage is paramount in the field of public health. Immunization is a critical tool in preventing infectious diseases, and understanding the factors that contribute to low coverage can help in formulating strategies to improve immunization rates. This study can provide insights into the barriers that prevent people from getting vaccinated, which can range from lack of access to healthcare services, misinformation about vaccines, to cultural beliefs and practices.
One of the key factors that influence low immunization coverage is the accessibility and availability of healthcare services. In many developing countries, healthcare infrastructure is inadequate, making it difficult for people, especially those in remote areas, to access immunization services. This study can shed light on the extent to which this factor contributes to low immunization coverage, and can guide policy makers in making decisions about where to allocate resources to improve healthcare infrastructure.
Another significant factor is misinformation about vaccines. In the age of social media, misinformation can spread rapidly, leading to vaccine hesitancy. This study can help understand the role of misinformation in influencing people’s decision to get vaccinated. It can also provide insights into effective strategies to counter misinformation and promote accurate information about vaccines.
Cultural beliefs and practices also play a crucial role in influencing immunization coverage. In some cultures, vaccines may be viewed with suspicion or fear, leading to low immunization rates. This study can help understand the cultural barriers to vaccination and can guide interventions to address these barriers.
Moreover, socioeconomic factors such as income, education, and employment status can also influence immunization coverage. People with lower socioeconomic status may have less access to healthcare services, including immunization. This study can provide valuable data on the relationship between socioeconomic status and immunization coverage, which can inform policies aimed at reducing health disparities.
The significance of this study lies in its potential to provide a comprehensive understanding of the factors that influence low immunization coverage. The findings can guide public health interventions and policies aimed at improving immunization rates, thereby preventing infectious diseases and improving population health.
Scope of the Study
The study examines the factor that influences low immunization coverage in Gindiri Panya Bikwin Ward Karim Lamido LGA Taraba State. The study is restricted to Gindiri Panya Bikwin Ward Karim Lamido LGA Taraba State.
Operational Definition of Terms
- Factor: In the context of this study, a factor refers to a circumstance, fact, or influence that contributes to a result or outcome. It is an element that plays a part in determining the immunization coverage. Factors could include things like access to healthcare, education levels, socioeconomic status, and more.
- Influence: Influence refers to the capacity to have an effect on someone or something’s development, behavior, or character. In this context, it refers to how the factors mentioned can shape or affect the level of immunization coverage in a population.
- Low: The term ‘low’ is a relative term and it generally refers to a small amount, rate, or level. In this context, ‘low’ immunization coverage means that a smaller proportion of a population has received the necessary vaccines.
- Immunization Coverage: Immunization coverage refers to the proportion of a specific population that has received a particular vaccine or a set of vaccines. It is often used as an indicator of the reach of a country’s immunization program. High immunization coverage is usually the goal, as it indicates a high level of protection against vaccine-preventable diseases within a population.
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FACTOR THAT INFLUENCES LOW IMMUNIZATION COVERAGE IN GINDIRI PANYA BIKWIN WARD KARIM LAMIDO LGA TARABA STATE.