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1.1         Background of the Study

Every employer seeks an optimum deployment of manpower, with the prime concerns for costs and productivity; hence, the management of human element becomes even more fundamental to corporate survival. Manpower planning becomes a core and strategic decision making function of management for the organization, utilization, and improvement of an organisation’s human resources. However, linking the planning, selecting and utilizing the human resource is the issue of training and development – for selecting and training are both concerned with adapting and fitting people to job requirements as well as securing better occupational adjustment. The pivotal role of manpower in an organisation, informed the importance that its training and development cannot be optional but something that must be done irrespective of the personnel previous training or experience. No organisation can choose whether or not to train employees regardless of previous training, education and experience; they need to be introduced to their new employer’s work environment and to be taught how to perform specific tasks. Moreover, specific occasion for retraining arise when employees are transferred or promoted, or when job changed and new skill must be learned, perhaps because of changes introduced by advancing automation. In view of this, the need for training and development cannot be overemphasized.

Observing the importance of training and development, French (1974) states that” … training and development provides the skills and knowledge required in carrying out various specialised parts of the overall task of the enterprises.” Corroborate the importance of training and development, Kelly and Donnelly says, “The importance of Manpower Training and development could be seen when one examines the benefits the organisation derive from such a programme. Training an development does not only help employee to improve their work performance but also enables the standard and quality of work required by the organisation to be achieved and maintained, Also labour “turnover, absenteeism, industrial accidents and grievance rates if cause by ineffective learning and inadequate training, are most likely to be reduced when staff are trained or developed.”

Apple (1969), states that there is need for manpower training and development because it is instrumental to the realisation of both personal and organizational goals; that “…a person’s knowledge and skills have to improved and his attitude and behaviour modified by training and development. Staff training and development is therefore a process of enhancing staff potentials, skills and knowledge in order to improve their expertise so that both personal and organisation goals will be accomplished”. While Harbison and Myers (1964), see human resource as the ultimate basis for the wealth of nations. “Human resources, not the capital, constitute the ultimate basis for the wealth of nations”; since it is an ultimate basis for the wealth of a nations, it becomes imperative that it must be train, development and utilized for the survival and growth of the nations.

Considering manpower value, Rensis Likert (1961) says “All the activities of any enterprises (organisation) are initiated and determined by the persons who make up that institution; plan offices, computers, automated equipment and all else that a modern firm use are unproductive except for human effort and direction … (and) of all the tasks of managing, the human components is the central and most important task …”; and its maintenance through training and development is imperative for constructive engagement. Manpower training and development are means of improving the potentials of all rank and file to meet up the challenge at hand; and entails preparing the rank and file employees for promotion to supervisory position and for improving their competence and capability while they hold such leadership assignment. According to Derek and Campman (1979), training is directed at changing people, their knowledge, experience, attitudes and other relevant of the behaviour. In this regard, training is necessary.

Bryan (1989) sees training development as ” a complex educational strategy intended to change beliefs, attitudes, values and structure of individuals so that they can be better adapt to new technologies, markets and challenges and the dazzling rate of change itself.” Therefore training and development are indispensable for management efficiency and effectiveness. Manpower training and development is also seen as a means of giving the employees sufficient instructions and guidance in order to equip them on the job. This corroborates with Flippo (1980) assertion that ” … the aim of training and development is to give employees at all level sufficient instruction and guidance to enable them perform their jobs effectively as well as prepare them for promotion …”

In recognition of the enormous manpower requirements of the country a number of short term policy measures were proposed in Nigeria National Development Plans for accelerating the supply of the much needed categories of manpower, the measures taken ranges from the extension of existing institution to establishing of at least one post-secondary institution in each state along side with the expansion in the number of universities.

Public organizations were established to enhance the process of social progress, economic growth and political integration of a society, and the achievement of these challenges very much depends upon the quality, quantity and type of the available human resources – essential towards and available for recruitment, deployment and, indeed, trained as well as integrated for productive purposes. Likert (in Johnson, 1956:467), states that “all the activities of any enterprise are initiated and determined by persons who make that institution, as plants, offices, computers, automated equipment and all else that a modern firm uses are unproductive except for human effort and direction. Of all the tasks of management, managing he human component is the central and most important task because all else depends on how ell it is done (by persons)”. Thus, of all organizational resources, the human resource stands out as the most crucial. In this regard, the objective of manpower training and development in the Edo State Civil Service should be to equip all personnel and those on the job with essential skills and understanding required for competent performance on the job.

1.3         Statement of the Problem

To achieve self-sustained, internally self-generating socio-economic development, the need to realize development priorities to emphasize the development of human capital both as the object of development and as custodian and mentor of socio-economic development, as the supplier and consumer of skills as well as the terminal products and services of all development efforts. The world bank notes that the human capital development is key, bed-rock and indeed, fundamental index upon which national aspiration and development can be achieved. Considering the globalization trends, events in one country are now capable of having effect in other parts of the world, almost simultaneously. Thus, to participate, internalize the benefit and remain relevant in the events and circumstances of the globe is to begin to become committed to the development of national manpower. This fact, informed the basis for the current reforms in the Nigeria public and private sectors, where those who cannot cope and meet up with the challenges of change are being shown the way out of service.

Today, training programmes are designed to respond to the needs of administration

in a rapidly changing world. Unlike in the ancient classical period, contemporary public programmes rarely remain static. They are being frequently revised, and modern governments are aware that the quickest way to adjust to such rapid changes is through deliberate, orderly training of its employees. If officials in public or private organisations are well trained, they should be in a position to effectively and efficiently carry out their responsibilities in policy and programme execution.

The continuous expansion of government programmes and the increasing requirement of competence and expertise in the public services have made training necessary and important in the public sector. The possession of intelligence and common sense by public officials in classical times, enabled them to carry out tasks. The public service today needs specialised skills in many fields and as Tyagi (1975) has observed “the nature of administrative activities is changing so fast that unless the civil servants are constantly trained and retrained, their knowledge and skills would soon become obsolete.” A substantial portion of the public service review commission’s Main Report. dwelt on what must be done to ensure that qualified, skilled and motivated people are placed in the right places at the right time to achieve objectives as well as to transform paper plans into actual achievements. The commission’s Main Report observed that the most significant obstacle to the development of Nigeria was the absence of skilled and experienced personnel to carry out the tasks at hand and to respond easily to the dreams of a rapidly changing and dynamic society. The only way to correct these anomalies is to improve upon both manpower planning and training. From the beginning to the end of its work, the public service review commission emphasized the development of public personnel through training.

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