Project Topic – IMPACT OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN LAGOS
1.1 Background of the Study
Psychoactive drugs are drugs that, when taken in or administered into one’s system, affect mental processes, e.g. perception, consciousness, cognition or mood and emotions. Psychoactive drugs belong to a broader category of psychoactive substances that include also alcohol and nicotine. The abuse of drugs among youths has become a major national problem in Nigeria. The Youths who are expected to be leaders of tomorrow have been rendered useless to themselves and the societies in which they live, due to the impact of drug on them, thus, contributing to the increase in the number of psychiatric patients, street boys, school dropouts and delinquents. Substance abuse is a rapidly growing global problem (Lakhanpal, Agnihotri, 2007; United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime, 2007; Abudu, 2008). The problem of substance abuse poses a significant threat to the social, health, economic fabrics of the families, society and the entire nations (Giade, 2012; Oshodi, Aina & Onajole, 2010). Almost every country in the world is affected from one or more drug being abused by its citizens. The increased of substance abuse globally has brought problems such as increase in violence and crimes and diseases such as HIV/AIDS, collapse of the veins and collapse in the social structure (UNODC, 2007; Oshodi, Aina, & Onajole, 2010).
Horrible youthful activities are widespread in Nigeria to the extent that they have been giving a lot of concern to the society, government and other stake holders in Nigeria. In primary schools, peers engage in organized crimes and disrupt normal academic programs. In secondary schools, the activities of secret cults are known to have been source of threat to lives and property. In tertiary institutions, a lot of ritual killings are taking place. (Abudu, 2008; Oshodi, Aina, & Onajole, 2010). The impact of substance abuse among Nigerian students has been a feature of a morally bankrupt, corrupt and wasted generation and loss of our societal values and ideals. The situation now appears to be such that no one can argue ignorance of what is happening (Abudu, 2008). “one cannot sit and pretend that he/she has not seen the menace of substance abuse among adolescents” (Hamisu, Ahmad & Lim, 2014). According to Giade, (2011), any nation being used by drug barons as a transit route has the potentials of becoming a substance abuse consumer‟s country, Substance abuse threatens the security of every nation, tearing apart the societies, spawning crime, spreading diseases such as AIDS, and killing youths and the future of the country”.
Odianose (2009) commented that, substance abuse is the “arbitrary” over dependence or misuse of one particular drug with or without a prior medical prescription from qualified health practitioners. Substance abuse may also be defined as the “arbitrary” over dependence or miss-use of one particular drug with or without a prior medical diagnosis from qualified health practitioners (Lakhanpal, & Agnihotri, 2007). Oluremi (2012) stated that Substance abuse is the harmful use of mind altering drugs. It added that the term usually refers to problem with illegal drugs, which also include harmful use of legal prescription drugs, Such as in self-medication. Majority of the Nigerian adolescents ignorantly or deliberately depend on one form of drug or the other for their various daily activities–social, educational, political, moral among others. Such drugs include: Tobacco, Indian hemp, cocaine, morphine, Heroine, Alcohol, ephedrine, Madras, Caffeine, Glue, Barbiturates, and Amphetamines. Other substance abused may include, Panadol, Benilyn, „Burukutu‟, or local beer, cigarette, solution, beer (Shehu, 2008). There is no doubt that the abuse of drug among secondary school students in Lagos State, Nigeria has continued unabated, thereby creating a social and emotional problem for both users and the society because they have now become a burden to their families and the society. Socio-emotional behaviour is the expression of a person that can be in the form of positive or negative way. Samuel (2006), viewed negative socio-emotional behaviour as any condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a period of time and adversely affecting academic performance, e.g., inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationship with peers, pervasive mood of unhappiness and fears associated with personal or school work. Socio-emotional behaviour can be observed when a child is experiencing problem more severe than those experienced by most children, and when such child behaviour in school, home, and society becomes extremely difficult to cope with and the behaviour is strange and disturbing (Onu, 2016).
Secondary students are individuals within the age range of 11-20. Usually, trial with drugs during this period (11–20 years) is common. At this age, they try so many new things. They use drugs for many reasons, including curiosity and desire to find out the effectiveness of a particular drug, to feels good, to reduce stress, or to feel grown up. Using alcohol and tobacco at a young age increase the risk of using other drugs later (Hamisu, Ahmad & Lim, 2014). In one of the WHO‟s and the World Heart Foundation‟s data, posit that in Nigeria, 22.1 percent of school youth age between 12 to 17 years use tobacco. Research studies however, have showed that when secondary school students indulge in the use of hard drugs such as Indian hemp, the hard drug interferes with their feelings and brain and renders them not to remember what has been taught or learnt in the class. It was estimated that in 1997, 11.4% of students between 12-17 years old in Sokoto State used illicit drugs such as Marijuana (Shehu, 2008). The fear is that students are lured into early death from Cardio Vascular diseases (CVD), violence tendencies, suicide, emotional problems and other tobacco related diseases (Abudu, 2008; Giade, 2011). Already, Nigerian students are being offered cigarettes through promotions and musical concerts. Some teens will experiment and stop, or continue to use occasionally without significant problems, others will develop addiction, moving on to more dangerous and hard drugs and causing considerable harm to themselves and the society at large. (Hamisu, Ahmad & Lim, 2014). Substance abuse could also be found among secondary school students in Lagos state just like their counterpart from other areas. It was reported that 12 percent of pupils aged (11–15) had used drugs (Oshodi, Aina, & Onajole, 2010).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Substance abuse and addictive behaviours are now regarded as a major public health and social problem; a universal phenomenon that extends across socio-economic, cultural, religion and ethnic boundaries. The extent of substance abuse has been a hallmark of a morally bankrupt and wasted generation, loss of societal values and ideals.
Based on observation, the researcher realized that students abuse drugs and sometimes they became addicted to these drugs to the extent that it influences their social and emotional behaviour and their school activities. In addition, the researchers‟ interaction with teachers shows that secondary school students in Lagos state usually start cigarette smoking and eventually mature to using other hard drugs. Peer pressure, personality traits, and social deprivation may also be contributing factors to substance abuse including unstable family life. The many consequences of substance abuse include suicide, increase in the level of absenteeism in school among students involved in substance abuse, begging for money or stealing, crime, delinquency, homelessness and the spread of HIV infection as a result of substance users using shared syringes and needles.
Based on the above arguments and from the preliminary study revealed that about twenty-two percent of students in Lagos state were engaged in substance abuse behaviour, the researcher thus found it relevant to carry out a study on substance abuse on the Socio-emotional behaviour of secondary school students in Lagos State.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The major objective of this study was to examine the impact of substance abuse on the behaviour of secondary School Students in Lagos. The specific objectives are to:
- Identify the predominant factors that lead to substance abuse among secondary school students in Lagos State.
- Assess the influence of substance abuse on social behaviour among secondary schools‟ students in Lagos State.
- Assess the influence of substance abuse on emotional behaviour among secondary school students in Lagos State.
- Assess how substance abuse influence students‟ school work in Lagos State.
- Investigate the prevalence of substance abuse between male and female secondary school students in Lagos State.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were used for the study
- What are the predominant factors that lead to substance abuse among secondary school students in Lagos State?
- To what extent does substance abuse influence social behavior among secondary school students in Lagos State?
- To what extent does substance abuse influence the emotional behavior among secondary school students in Lagos State?
- How does substance abuse influence students‟ schoolwork in Lagos State?
- What is the prevalence of substance abuse between male and female secondary school students in Lagos State?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were formulated and tested.
- There is no significant difference on the factors that influence substance abuse among secondary school students in Lagos State.
- There is no significant difference between social behavior of male and female secondary school students who abuse drug in Lagos State.
- There is no significant difference between the emotional behavior of male and female secondary school students who abuse drug in Lagos State.
- Substance abuse does not significantly influence students‟ schoolwork in Lagos State.
- There is no significant difference between male and female students in the rate of substance abuse.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study will be significant in a number of ways. It will be useful to the students in schools, by effectively educating the students on the most prevalent drugs used and abused in schools, factors that influence substance abuse and the effect on their socio-emotional status. The study will also educate students on the risks involved in substance abuse.
The result of study will enlighten the parents and families, through workshop and seminars, and mass media as it will enable parents to educate their children about the risks of illicit substance use. The parents on the other hand will be enlightened on the prevalence of substance use and abuse in the families. The study will also reveal to the society on the need to eradicate or discourage the use, sale, trafficking and recycling of illegal drugs. The study will help teachers to be enlightened on the effects of substance use and abuse among student how they can guide and counsel them. All these can be achieved by publishing the outcome of this research work.
Substance abuse reflects a bad image of any society and, as a result, students may not be accepted in higher learning institutions, leading to a decline in education standards. Substance abusers are not likely to perform well in school and as a result may find it difficult to be accommodated in the economic market, which will lead to poverty in the society. Therefore, this study will provide information that will serve as a wake-up call for today‟s busy parents about the importance of creating a conducive environment for their children‟s growth under discipline.
The information when published in journals will help schools in understanding the root causes of the students‟ misconduct so that these institutions can find ways to encourage their (students) inner qualities by building a sense of self-worth. It can also be useful to community health and social workers who seek to promote emotional, mental and physical health of the society for it betterment.
The result when made available to home economic teachers through publication, will evoke a sense of need to enlighten students in the class on the danger of substance abuse to the individual and the fabric of the society. Efforts may also be made to involve substance abuse as a content of lesson in our schools by home economic curriculum developers.
1.7 Basic Assumptions of the Study
Based on available literature on substance abuse among students, this study was based on the following assumptions that:
- Substance abuse among secondary school students in Lagos State is influence by several factors.
- Substance abuse influences negative social behaviour among secondary school students in Lagos state.
- Substance abuse influences negative emotional behaviour among secondary school students in Lagos state.
- Substance abuse may have negative influence on students‟ school work in Lagos State.
- Substance abuse is common among male than female secondary school students in Lagos State.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The study was limited to substance abuse among students and it’s associated risky behaviour in Lagos State. The study was further limited to senior secondary school students in Lagos State.
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Project Topic – IMPACT OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN LAGOS