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The literature review presents the framework of the study in addition to a review of empirical studies on effect of political instability on educational development in Ovia Local Government Area of Edo State. Nigeria since her independence 1960 is characterized by chequered history as a result of political instability. This instability, has serious effect on the implementation of Nigeria policy on education called 6,3,3,4 system of education. Observation by Crowther (1978) “it was only the complete breakdown of law and order in the western region in late 1965 that the military finally over-threw the government and suspended the constitution”.


Ezeani (2005.6) noted that “since the military take over in 1966, Nigeria had wobbled from, one political regime to another with its destructive effects on educational policy embarked by the country”. In the light of the above preamble, available literature will be reviewed on the instances of political instability and  their effects on implementation of  the Nigeria policy on education.



Theory of structural functionalism: this theory as a concept was however, adopted in political science and specifically in the field of comparative  politics. The concept sees the education as a system that need maintenance  that brought about the stability of the secondary education in order words where the system fail to function result to the instability of the secondary education.


According to Nwosu and Ofoegbu (1986) functions a generally used by scholars in political science refers to the contribution of a activity or partners of behavior to the maintenance of education in a given society. Precisely in Ovia local government area as a case study: they went further to state that, it is the  observable effects of an activity that are necessary to the maintenance  of education. According to them,  function implies a positive contribution towards system maintenance of political stability on secondary education, while days functions is used to refer to negative contributions, that is, contributions that lead to the breakdown of the system to political instability.


According to Olaniyi (1997) structural functionalism when related to the political instability on implementation of Nigeria policy on secondary education can be described as a means of explaining basic functions of the political structures in the political system and it is a tool of investigation. He further stated that it explains the relationship between the parts (structures)  on one hand and between the parts and the other hand, the relationship is explained in line with the basic functions of each. This  is because it is the contribution of each structure (part) that helps to sustain the political system of secondary education in order worlds were the whole part fail to function will results to the political instability on secondary education.


So, the theory of structural functionalism is of the view that the implementation of Nigeria policy on secondary education gave rise to the stability of the political system which entails the structural arrangement of educational policy or policies in Nigeria, but in order words where the whole parts of the system. Education in Nigeria fail to function in respect to the policies and programmes of educational system will result to the political instability which does not favour Nigeria especially Ovia local government area as a case study.



One of the causes of political instability or friction in Nigeria has been the  multi-national composition of the country according to onwubiko (2005.38) these  ethnic group pulled by accidents of colonial conquest has been completely integrated into a national state before the attainment of independence. As a matter of fact after the withdrawal  influence of unifying of colonial power, the divisive forces  of ethnic loyalty or tribalism shortly placed with statism broke  and began to plague the body politics of  the country in the form of triabalism shortly placed with statism broke and began to plague the body polities of the country in the from of tribal rivalry for political power public official and resources distribution.


The suspicion of dominion among the ethnic groups became a constant source of political friction: Orjiallo (2006) opined that “Regional dissatisfaction is dangerious because each of the three largest ethnic groups Hause/Fulani. Igbo and Yoruba had a viable population enough to form a country and each is so powerful that it could throw the country into chaos if it political power is not accorded recognition on discriminated against”.


Perhaps, the area in which ethnicity have had its most dissections consequences to the nation is on economic development which greatly affected educational- as noted by olite (2007) “ethnicity is a strategy for controlling and distributing national resource”. As a sociological problem, it works against political, economic and educational polities and decision meant to benefit the nation as one entity becomes difficult to implement objectively.

This explains why Nigeria’s dream for national growth and integration forty two (42) years after independence was a mirage “for as long as ethnicity has plenty of self serving work to do so long shall civilian and military elite, so long shall remain as abiding problem for the country” Agboroko (2007).


Sir, leaf (2008) and Osadolor (2008) greed that must political crisis in this country or civilian  the political drifts of Nigeria came about because of the absence of coherent national agenda with purposeless, inconsistent, sectional and buccaneer leaders. Nigeria has been dragged all these years through dark always. The 1962/64 censuses were yet another issue that caused instability in the country as well as in education.


The result of 1962 census indicated that the North had a larger population than the three southern regions combined. Implication was the south would forever be dominated  politically by the Northern majority. There were protests on the efficacy of the result by the south politicians, which made the prime minister Alhaji Tafawa Belewa to decide on a new one. It was held on 24th February 1989. The population of Nigeria according to national population commission was about fifty-five (55) million people. The southern part of Nigeria again rejected the result.


Orjiako (2007:8) this construct of some political friction was prompted by the imbalance in the size of the regions” the  population figures arrived at after two bitter controversial census gave the North region a staggering population of twenty nine (29) million. This was more than half of the country’s population and it ensured that Northerners a comfortable lead and control  of the federal legislature and other institutions. According to Onwubiko (1983) “it was the frustration which this situation created among southern people that partly explains  the army coup of January 1999”.


Again, the 1964 federal elections and 1965 western region election contributed in so small measure to the political instability of Nigeria, generally, the tone of polities  took a different position or dimension. Crowther (1989) reported that in the north, various attacks were made on Northern in the press.


December of 1994 saw the dissolution of the federal parliament and the date for the federal election was December 30,1994 that year some political parties to for an alliance. The out standing ones were the united progressive Grand Alliance  (UPGA) and Nigeria National Alliance ( NNA). The Nigeria national Alliance (NNA) purportedly won the federal election but with changes of unfair practice (election malpractices). The (UPGA) candidates and vote boycotted the election. The future of the country was threatened.


The 1978 western election as observed by crowther (1989) “Witnessed bare-faced rigging accompanied with threats, brites, beatings arson and even murder. As the election  12th October 1978 approaches, it was obviously noticed that law and order had broken down in west. Yet the federal government  did not intervene it was in this context of apparent helplessness of the federal government to bring the matter under control, that on the night of 15th January 1998, a group of young majors staged a coup in which the prime minister Alliaji tafawa Balewa, premier of the North, sir Ahmadu Bello, premier of west. Akintola finance minister, festus Okotie Eboh some senior Army officers were  assassinated. As Crowther (1989) argued, the for their corruption, profligacy and lack of real concern for those they ruled and who had elected them. They had also failed to respect the spirit of the constitutions.  In January 1966, major chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu led an executed a coup with some young military offices.


Orijako (2003:2) reported Nzeogwu as saying that “we seized power to stamp out tribalism nepotism and regionism. Unfortunately, the coup received a different  interpretation in the North, as an Igbo coup dominate the rest of the country.


The first military Government was under an Igbo major General G.T.U Aguiyi who proposed a unification decree for the country. According to a government press release No. 723 of 29th May 1966 cited in Schwarz (1968).


“The former region are abolished and Nigeria grouped into a number of traditional areas called provinces. Nigeria causes to be what is described as a federation. It now becomes simply the republic service where declared unified and every civil servant is now called upon to see his function in any part of Nigeria in which he is serving in the context of the whole country”.


When the war ended three years later, the economic life and educational institution especially in the east where in ruins Uwazuruike and Ozuzu (1999) stated that, the civil war greatly affected educational development in Nigeria especially in the eastern region” During the war period. Nigeria wasted most of her hard earned resources towards the successful persecution of the war, therefore education was not considered the priority.


Osuji (2005) remarked that “Schools especially in eastern states were devastated . there were also high rate of dropout in schools due to frustration and maturity. Another fall out of civil war was the abrupt takeover of schools by Government throughout the country from voluntary I missionary agencies. According to Anukam (2005) “this practice started with the east central government and spread to other states of the federation”.


The effect of the army on Nigeria political life is overwhelming as Okadigbo (1989), posited “the cause of instability in Nigeria is not political parties but rather it is military usurpation of the policy: He further stated that, our economy is stagnated due to economic mismanagement employment by solders in their leadership styles”.


Numerous literature review lay credence to the fact that, out of forthy years” of  independence to Nigeria the military regime reigned for 29 years”. They found social, economic, political and educational system that will stand the test of time like Diya (2005) remarked “the bare of the military is indiscipline and involvement in policies”. Babangida (1999). Called Diya declaration “an understatement”. He state Nigeria military divided into political  parties weakened by years of wrong living and political frustration, prostitution and reckless experiment”. Like fellow country men, the loyalties and corruption.


Mgbodile (2002) summarized all when he said that military intervention in Nigeria polities leads to bloody civil war, institutional paralysis involving virtual destruction of public services, security and lack of funds as well as the repression of workers, student peasants and the intimidation of the judiciary”. The high turnover rate of military regime is disruptive. It hampers the continuity of  occasionally well-intended educational policy initialed by  a regime.


Again, the military led the country into political impasse when president Ibrahim  Badamosi Babangida annulled the result of June 12, 1993 presidential election. The  effect of the annulment is enormous. The Nigeria union of Journalist (NUJ) summarized the effect of the cancellation of June  12 1993 presidential election in Ajaiiyi et al (1994) thus “the present state of drift heightening political tension and unrelenting economic stagnation has reduced fear of the unknown”. The military will be held responsible of this totally unnecessary and  scripting crisis is allowed to degenerate to rational disintegration.




It has been previously noted in this the is that Nigeria history is bedeviled instability. It has greatly affected the Nigeria educational policy.

Uwazunlke (2002:6) posited that, political instability is a prerequisite for meaningful investment since it ensures an atmosphere of peace and predictability”.


Frequent changing of Government hinders long-term educational plan. They are either abandoned in the wake of new Government or distorted to suit the policies of the new administrators. He also observed that “political instability is a disincentive of foreign investment”. Nigeria rely daily on foreign aids from international body such UNESCO and UNICEF in planning and implementing het educational systems. The aids are usually suspended event of political crisis as was the case during the civil was 1967-1970 when UNESCO suspended  its funding of the then advanced teachers collage ownerri.


Uwazurulke (2003) and Eresimmadu et al (2003) pointed out that politicians in apparent  to their political party manifests rejected sound educational advice”. During the second and third republics parties promised free education up to the tertiary level against technical advice. Beyond this promise implementation was difficult and the idea was dropped by the intervening military Government. Circumstances where an action of politicians conflict, with advance of political export on funding of worth while educational ventures endanger effective implementation of Nigeria educational policy.


According to Eresimadu et al (2002)’ civilian  and military Government use” education as propaganda tool and for political socialization. Thus, education continues to suffer the ups and downs of politics.


At times in the process of implementing educational pledges made politicians they interfere with the original objective of educational plans. Inconsistency in plan implementation as observed by Adesina (2001) often is the major cause of failure of the educational policy.



Fafunwa (2001) opined that. “the UPE was first introduced in western region on 17th January 1965”, the federal Government  adopted and started implementing it in 1976  Ukeje et al 920020 argued that, the rational for the introduction of the scheme as contained in the plan is the recognition that universal primary education (UPE) is an pre-requisite for equalization of educational opportunities across the country.


According to Anken (2004) the UPE was a revolutionary step in national educational development”. This laudable educational policy has virtually collapsed by 1995 why do this important schemes failed or collapse. However the schemes failed or collapse because of some silent reason. Onwuka and Enemut 2004 stated. “The political will, needed to make the scheme succeed was not there” some Northern politicians, reasoned that making UPE work means using the scheme for equalizing the imbalance in education will the south.


Taiwo (2004:8) “the objective in the North should be to approval. Parity with the other regions in the federation, and in any event, development must be so planned as to give by 1970 a total emolument in the Northern region of not less than so percent of children of primary school age”.


Closely associated to this, fafunwa (2004), “the UPE failed because some states saw the funds allocation to them, as their own share of the national cake”. He further opined that, “the fund which the federal government made available was grossly mismanaged”.


Besides, the incessant change in political leadership in the country within the period of (1995-1998) of implementation affected the success of the scheme adversely the new administration embarked on massive retirement dismissal or termination of appointment of civil secants including teachers, who are crucial for the implementation of the UPE scheme. The implication was that there was  acute shortage of teachers while enrolment was on the increase.


The universal Basic Education is another introduction of dimension in education project by the Obasanjo administration. The IBE is  intended to expand the scope of education for within the plan period of 1999-2001.


The emphasis on education in this recent innovation is qualitative education. At the time of drawing the programme, it was abundantly that the standard and quality of education was low.


Given the set educational aims and objectives there are cardinal variables by which we can asses the performance of this sector.

These include:

  1. The tertiary rate. How far has the country achieved the much advertised literacy for all the year 2002?
  2. To what extent have Nigerians achieved the desired self-realization and self improvement?
  3. Does the product/out put from the education sector justify the gross input on education in terms of resources?
  4. How are has the education sector succeeded in promoting national consciousness and national unit?
  5. Are the visible important on the manpower need and management of the investment on education?


The plan was made and developed by the military regime, General yakubu Gowon and executed by General olusegun obasanjo during his first tenure of offices. He resurrected the scheme, and baptized it universal Basic education commission in 1999 when he came up for the second time as a civilian president. The effect of the new changes and introduction in the education industry appeared largely negative and counter productive, because of inadequate planning and  poor management of resources was poor as a result of undue interference and politicization of the system. There was collapse, waste and misappropriation of fund/materials brought for the project.


However, political instability on implementation of the Nigerian policy on education is affected by the third national development plan. The third national development plan as it affected educational industry was a future part of its failure  was attributed to the structure put in place to boost the industry including the UPE, UBEC, and the  structural changes in the system and the incidence of direct Government involvement in the industry.



The current plan on the other hand has its emphasis on provision of qualitative and functional, education while maintaining the mass literacy stance. It has introduced the universal basic education a counterpart of the UPEC. How functional and qualitative however, is a matter of Nigerians decision. It is reasonable to postulate that the current plan has not shown signs of achieving the desired goals.



 In terms of allocation of resources, the current plan is witnessing a serious improvement. In the year 2006 Nations budget for example, the education sector is allowed N17.7 billion (National Guardian November 8,2005) against the compelling Health sector which is allocated 14. 9 billion. This however, represent a decrees in percentage on third plan provision of 12%.


In general, the current plan has invested and still investing huge sums of money on education. More than 50% of appropriation goes into capital provision. The current autonomy being granted to universities represents a significant  improvement in the management of the system. The product of the education industry posses a scrious question as to the justification of the government enrolment investment in the education industry.


However, the current development plan as it effects education is being bedeviled by same factor that ruined the third plan. The so much advertised functional and qualitative education is eluding the system as the education received is nether functional (as indicated in mass unemployment and poverty) nor qualitative (as qualifications and certificates obtained Nigeria institution of leaning are being questioned, by foreign employers). Since the left over of the current plan can be rolled over into the next rolling plan, it is hoped that it may perform better in the  light of certain development in the system. Such development include huge capital investment on provision of educational equipment and in fractures, the granting of autonomy to universities and the industries given the political environment, it is hoped that situation might improve.



The national policy on education conference of 1999 marked the first serious and effective national effort to improve the education system from the country’s colonial past. The conference attended by university, ministry and UNESCO respectively accomplished the major spadework in term of formulating breadlines of educational policy and circucur objective that set the place for the services of workshops and seminars later gave birth to the new system of education.


A seminar on a national policy on education held in 1873 under the chairmanship of chief O. Adebo and also attended by a very wide rang of representative. Finally drafted the policy documents a while pape on which eventually become in 2000, the national policy on education and revised in 2001 from the recommendations evolved. Public education was established.


Taiwo (2005,) “the conference was a god ending to the educational activities of the decades of rehabilitation, reconstruction and national policy on education is a final embodiment of the all the objective of education at various levels Mkpa 2005, “the represent a significant milestone in the development of education in Nigeria. The national policy of education has been hallmark implementation because of instability in the policy. Let use see why these livable educational policies did achieve their desired results.



Anukam (2004) posited that “decline in oil revenue which was chief foreign exchange earn affected the two schemes adversely. Consequently, government could no longer raise enough fund to run or maintain schools.

Contributing to government inability to fund educational programmes “the Guardian” June 9th 2004 posited that “the refusal of successive government to pay no more that lip services to the provision funds to education to policy had lead to a situation in which all facilities in our schools are so grossly over used that most of them have become completely undermined. In Ovia local Government for instance,  more then seven secondary schools a re suing uncompleted building. Sometimes, schools are dismissed to avoid student being beaten by rain, since there no enough building to accommodate the student especially during the raining season. Some time two classes are combined like community secondary school Nwofe where class one and two have to be emerged to make sure that school building accommodate them as in community secondary school Nwofe.


These schools and others numerous to mention  here has no laboratory in the school not to talk about introductory technology, these to a great extent affect the student performance in the sense that all the student are forced to register only Art in their senior school certificate and hence no body offers science subject for number of years.


Okoro et al (2002) argued that “the crisis is all encompassing. Many primary and secondary schools are commonly obtained in Ovia local government, schools like and other are suffering the effect of student using bare floor of their class rooms, because most of them, their parent cannot afford feeding them talk less of buying school desk or lockers and stools. Even tertiary institutions are not left out. There are no seats and structure are dilapidated.


Mkpa (2005) pointed out the bony in the implementation of the national policy on education. He posited that “all the national policy promised to provide, seem to be effective only on the pages of the official document containing the proposal. Through some are not implemented  because of political instability. Yet today the state of our schools are to say the least pitiable. Many states government are hardly able to pay teachers salaries salaries, how much more providing the needed facilities and infrastructure for effective implementation of education system.


Uwazuruike (2006) earlier pointed out that “owning to political crisis donor countries may fail to redeem their pledges to the detriment of the implementation of any planned educational system”. The result ant, effect is withdrawal of assistance from external sources on implementation of education policies which can be disastrous  for a developing countries like Nigeria since projection made in the respect of such may not be realized. This was the fact of many educational system planned for this nation especially the UPE and the national policy on education.


Student Demonstration And Riots

For us to discus this, we have to Degin by asking ourselves these questions. Can political instability induced student’s demonstration or riots.


Discussing the origin of student riots

Crowther (1988) and whisky (1995) reported that student riots have history of their own from the time of independence 1960. The joint student and workers protest in 1962 against the Anglo-Nigeria defense  part remain one of the most memorable.


Student saw the part as a continuation of British imperialism. The part was abrogated  and student won. Since then students have often demonstrated in opposition to government position on certain issues. Some students demonstration are at time induced by political instability. In 1972, student rioted against the increasingly unpopular Gowon’s administration Again 1993 student in Lagos and other part of western states rioted against annulled June 12 1993 presidential election result.

Back home here in Ovia local government during the late general sani Abacha regime, three secondary schools rioted against the UNCP candidates who was elected on march 1997 which they said not to be peoples choice. There are so many other cases that even resulted to the worse than student rioting infact a lot even go beyond burning of houses or even serious  war between two villages like a similar case in 1997 election that resulted to war between onuenyim Agbaja and Ndiagu Ovia local government area.


In all these and other cases of the students not students confronted authorities and government properties are of then damaged, school properties as well are damaged, there was a case of these riot in community secondary school Iboko Ovia, where student destroy almost all the equipment in the laboratory, life’s are also lost and closure of schools that lasted ranging from weeks to a few months or even a session.


This sort of closure disrupted academic and other academic activities. Odubogun (2000) “sometime when I teach, I see so many students sleeping in my class because they have not eaten any food. The condition the live in is humble”. In some schools especially in the east where school buildings, hostels, classrooms were inadequate, and were so many of them especially school established before the war was destroyed during the civil war, unfortunately, student are congested in hostels of classrooms were inadequate high rate of school fees were experienced. Students contributed money to buy chalk, furniture etc, even after paying the school fees, because of lack of provision of such.

There were many abandoned projects students at time resort to riots when sometimes they cannot afford these things at medium to express dissatisfaction with the system.


Indiscipline by students and mass cheating during examination are results of political crisis in the policy. As osadolor (2003) succinetly posited, “Nigeria is deep in protracted socio-economic and political crisis. Coups sustain the instability in the political system. During the first and the second republics, there was unmitigated disaster and economic paralysis, introduction of education policies that have millions literate but uneducated.

Nwana (2005) summed up the attitude of student in his study of the incidence of major school offences as stealing, dishonesty cheating during examinations, sex offences, wickedness, strike and demonstration”. This in no doubt was a result of political instability in Ovia local government for instance the absence of the infrastructures, we made mention of earlier like the school building and laboratories enhances, the poor performance of the student because the syllables of the school and other scheme of work are not even heavily covered talkless of revising what was taught earlier or summarizing. Therefore student will embark on cheating in examination in order to pass.

Arinze 2005 quoted in Ersmiadu et al (2006) lamented the pitiful situation in our students in the secondary and even in tertiary institution are leaving dishonesty and bribery in education” certificates can no longer be acceptable to their face value; there is whole some coping in some exams. The above situation portraned in a bad light, how political instability has adversely affected education in Nigeria. No meaningful educational system could progress in such an atmospheres.


The teachers in Nigeria performs their duties in a crisis-ridden environment. Their interaction with has severe  consequence for efficient performances as a professional and educational system. The role of teachers is presumed to be affected by politics. As Crowin (2000) observed.

Teachers have virtually no control over their standard of work. They have little control over the subjects to be taught. The materials to be used, the critevia for deciding who should be admitted, and graduated from teachers training, the forms to be used in reporting progress.

Meanwhile, a more distributing development in the relationship between the professional, teachers and the relationship between the professional militancy as a method of achieving goals is to say the least detrimental to our educational system. Okeke (1994) succinctly observed that teacher’s relationship with their employers is characterized by “conflict militancy,  protest, demonstration, distrust withdrawal of services confrontation, resistance to authority, withholding information, barrier to communication information distortion negotiation and dispute resolution with these states of affairs work, is endemically disrupted culminating in strike action work to rule and teachers attribute through abandonment of the profession.

Sometimes, teachers are found moving from one appointment or the other, further plans to employ more teachers are equally disrupted by cove and counter coups. The consequences is that at the end of the whole thing sometimes lack of trained qualified teachers make it that untrained ones unqualified teachers are employed to teach. In Ovia local government for instance schools located in interior places hardly get good number of teachers rather what they do made use of is parent teaches who are qualities, to teach but in absence of non they are found to be there.

Moreover each time, work is disrupted considerably consequence are born by teachers and student respectively. Ekorillo et al (2006) reported that in the past, strickes by primary/secondary school teachers as well as university are closely done by many schools and it distributed academic calenda between one hundred and thirty (130) local government area in nigeira were session for fewer then five months. Currently nobody can tell what session some schools are running especially the university.

Njoku (2007) pointed out that, strike has done an incalculatable damages to the standard of education in Nigeria student are expelled to study longer in school than the expected years of educational system will prepared to face the challenges of their future eater. Some students who seek admission for post graduate course abroad are subjected to humiliating one year compulsory remedial course to qualify for admission.

Aloe. (2007) regretted that “the unfortunate situation will make the outside world to begin to question the integrity and reliability of the graduates who went through our educational system”. He further lamented that, “political instability had produced in the disruption of academic calendar, poverish and irresponsible students union agitation, secrets cults the obscenity of examination malpractice”. Crowin (2008) schools identified teachers he called “rebellious” and “country” in orientation and more military and rebellious to the detriment of work and industrial harmony.

Sharing the same opinion, Aderson (2007) stressed that “the emerging military of professional education association, be then teachers union exhibits. Not only to achieve a professional status but also to cure out an area of professional autonomy from administrative control and interference “such was the cases when he Nigeria union of teachers (NUT) in December 1992 went on strike. One of the outstanding demands of the (NUT) as the professionalization of teachers, together with several months arrears of salaries owed to teachers.


It is common nation to believe that financial remuneration or economic reward is the causal factor of professional military among Nigeria educationalist. Acknowledging  financial benefit as a reqard in motivating workers and the possibility of protests in the event of denial  of such benefit.

Uwazurulke (2006) states that “this organizational  structure of works and principle of work and also vital condition for satisfactory performance of work.

Ndu and ohiklanm (2008) agreed that ‘the pay packet and other related benefits contributing to the workers motivation to work as well as his satisfaction on the job. This shows the fact the professional competence of the teachers.

From many literature reviewed it has been seen that the effect of political instability in the nation policy is enormous. Particularly in Ovia local government Area of Edo state where it had tore many schools apart. This instability has happened greatly on the country’s advancement  through educational due to inconsistency in implementing policy embarked on the government.


Summary of literature review

It had been observed that since independence Nigeria had observe a lot of political instability which a lot of impact on implementation of its policy secondary education. This political instability as put by (ezieani 1999) thus, since the military take over in 2000. Nigeria had wobbed from one political regime to another with its destructive effects on educational policy rembarked by the country.

According to onwubiko (2005:38) “these ethnic groups pulled by accident of colonial conquest has not been completely integrated into a nation state before the attainment of independence”. As a matter of fact after the withdrawal influence of unifying of colonial power, public official and impact of distribution.

The impact of political instability on the implementation of secondary education are numerous. However, some of these impact is: The civil war was last for three years wasted a lot of economic, life and educational institution especially in the east, hence uwazuruike and Ozuru (2006) stated that the civil war greatly affected educational development in Nigeria devasted. There were also high rate drop out in school due to frustrations maturity.

There was also fall out of civil war as the abrupt take over of schools by government through out the country from voluntary agencies as missionary and others.

Uwazuruike (2006) posited that, political instability is a prerequisite for meaningful investment since  it ensure an atmospheric of place and predictability.

Frequency changing of government hinders a long term educational plan, hence they are either abandoned in the wake of new government or distorted to soil, the new administrations. He further observed that political instability is a disincentive of foreign investment, Nigeria rely daily on foreign aids from international bodies such as UNESCO and UNICEF in planning and implementing her educational policy.

Another impact of political instability on educational policy is according to Eresimmadu et al (2009) pointed out that politicians in apparent loyalty to their political party manifestoes rejected sound educational advice. During the second and third republics parties promised free education up to the tertiary level against technical advice, beyond this promise implementation was difficult and the idea was dropper by the intervening  military government.

Agin Eresimadu et al (2009) civilian and military government use education is propaganda  tool for political socialization. Thus education continues to suffer the UPS and downs of politics.

At times, in the process of implementation educational pledges made by politicians. They interfere with original objective of educational play inconsistently in plan implementation as observed by Adesina (2008) often the major cause of failure of the educational policy such  as universal primary education (UPE) which according to fafunwa (2005) the UPE was first introduction in western region on 17th January 1955 through the federal government adopted and started implemented it in 1976. however the UPE has virtually collapsed by 1985m which was a  result of some soiled reason. Closely associated to this fafunwa (2006) the UPE failed because some states saw the funds allocated to them as their own  share of the national cake.’ He  further opined that “the fund with which the federal government made available was grossly mismanaged. This was believes to consequences of political instability.


The incessant change in political leadership in the country within the period of (1975-1996) implementation affected the success of the scheme adversely or termination of appointment of civil  servant including teaches who are crucial for the implementation of UPE scheme. The implementation was acute shortage of teachers even in urban area-areas talkless of rural areas Ovia were absences of social amenities therefore teachers finds it difficult to on the increase.


The universal Basic Education commission (UBEC) is another introduction of educational project by obasanjo administration, which tended to expand the scope of education for within the pan period of 1999-2001.

The emphasis on education on this recent innovation is qualitative education. At the time of drawing the programme, it was abundantly that the standard and quality of education was extremely low.

The impact of political instability on student

There was student indiscipline and mass cheating during examination. Nwana (2008) summed up the attitude of student in his study of the incidence of major school offences, wickedness, strike and demonstration.

These are more commonly found in Ovia local government where student go as far as rioting because of one thing or the other a case in point is at boys secondary school Iboko where student rioted because of political region in 2007. There was also massive cheating in examination because students are not well taught they hardly cover their syllabus talkless of revising before examination and hence the only way out is to embark on cheating during examination poor funding of education was also another issue


According to Anukam (2009) posited that “the decline in oil revenue which was chief foreign exchange earner affected two scheme adversely, consequently government could no longer raise enough fund to run or maintain their school.


Contributing to government inability to fund educational programme “the Guardian” June 9th 1999 posited that “the refusual of successive government to pay no more that lip serious to the provision of funds to education policy had led to a situation to which all facilities in our school are so grossly over used that most of them have school become completely unenviable.

In Ovia local government being our case study, more than seven secondary schools are using uncompleted building sometimes school dismissed just to avoid student beaten by rain especially during raining season. Some other schools two classes are combined so that they could be accommodated. Other times they are made to study under mango tree as in community boys high school unEdo Agbaja in Ovia. There was no laboratory for some of the student sciences and other equipment.

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