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This study investigated the teaching style and pupils academic performance in pre-primary school. In carrying out this study, Questionnaire on Teaching style and pupils academic performance in pre-primary school was developed to elicit responses from respondent. Percentage, mean and chi-square at 0.05 level of significant were used to test the hypotheses. The results of the study showed that storytelling strategy is the best strategy to teach pupils in ECE than dramatic strategy; teaching strategy have an influence on pupils’ academic achievement in ECE classroom; teaching strategy have an influence on learning outcome in ECE classroom; teaching strategy have effect on class participation; there is a significant effect of teaching styles on pupils’ academic achievement and there is a significant influence of teaching strategy on pupils’ academic performance in ECE classroom. The implication for policy and practice respectively drawn from the study are that teaching strategy determines the effectiveness of a teaching process so teacher should make use of appropriate teaching strategy that is suitable for the lesson. The study highlighted the needs for further study on teaching strategy and teachers’ performance.






1.1 Background of the Study

Education is a systematic process whereby an individual is exposed to and provided with the opportunity of acquiring knowledge, skills, value and attitudes which develop cumulatively with a view to preparing him well to enable him to satisfactorily integrate effectively in the society, pursue a career and sharpen his quest for continuous learning. Education involves teaching, and teaching has been generally defined by Encyclopedia Americana (1995) as to educate, instruct, discipline or an act of imparting knowledge to a learner. It is the art and practice imparting to the learner skills, values and norms that can be useful to the total development of the individual.

There is no gain saying the fact that the strategy(s) adopted by a teacher, affects the learning outcomes of the pupils or pupils. Experienced and properly trained teachers know what to and how to teach at the various levels of our educational system (pre-primary, pre-primary, secondary and the tertiary) levels. At the pre-primary level, care must be taken by professional teachers to adopt the down to earth strategy(s) of teaching the child because of immaturity at that level (Obiweluozor, 2015). According to Oatley, Keltner and Jenkins (2007), at the Pre-primary stage, teachers ought to apply the strategies in their teaching that will assist the child to learn, rather than being confused and failing to learn what he/she ought to learn.

Eric (2021), recommended five types of teaching styles the play-way, the gaming and stimulation, the role playing strategy, and the demonstrator strategies of teaching. He is of the opinion that, the play-way strategy affords the child the ample opportunity to express himself freely in a play-way environment as pupils love to play naturally. Concerning the gaming strategy, Eric (2021) opined that the gaming and stimulation strategy, like the play-way strategy, is an excellent strategy of teaching pupils at the early stage, as it makes the child to be stimulated about the things he/she is learning.

The role playing strategy teaching also allows the child to practicalize what is going on in the class-room. This is because, the role a child plays in the classroom during teaching, ever remains indelible in the brain of the child, while the group activity strategy of teaching the child, enables him/her to learn from his/her peers. This strategy is very good at it enable the pupils to trade ideas and learn from one another in group (Race, 2000).

Recent research on teacher effectiveness has produced a number of findings that should be of interest to those who work with young pupils, particularly in the pre-primary grades. Although results of these studies are by no means conclusive, and possibly cannot be, they do provide a fairly accurate description of how effective teachers operate in their classrooms. This description suggests that effective teachers (ie) teachers whose classes constantly show gain in achievement rely on traditional strategies of instruction, at least in the basic skills. This is not to say that open education or child-centered teaching styles are not useful in Pre-primary School. These strategies are sometimes essential to reach certain curriculum goals but current finding suggest the wisdom of a return to the basics in teaching styles, as well as in curriculum, for Pre-primary School (McMullen, et al., 2005).

According to Adegbiji (2007), teaching young pupils is challenging and rewarding and whatever approach or strategies a teacher adopt to teach these young’s ones along way to bring effectiveness to their learning, hence the need to evaluate the styles. Evaluation involves assessing the strengths and weakness of programmers, polices, personnel products, strategy and organizations to improve their effectiveness. The fact that Pre-primary is unique and precious; bring about the need for this study on what appropriate teaching strategy to be used to achieve effectiveness in Pre-primary School.

It is in this light of these considerations that this study was carried out to evaluate the teaching style and pupils academic performance in pre-primary school with a view to finding solution to the problems of wrong choice of teaching styles and strategies for teaching the young ones.

1.2    Statement of the Problem

Poor academic performance among pupils in pre-primary schools has resulted in low recognition and poor education standard in Nigeria. The rate of dropout is alarming and the policy embarked by the government in giving pupils mass promotion so as to reduce government expenses is not helping the matter. However, one would ask questions the causes of this poor academic performance even when the teachers are teaching and making use of relevant learning aids.

One would be surprised at the manner at which nursery school pupils are normally assembled in and outside the school premises in the name of playing, storytelling, acting, reciting songs. The question is, are all these styles effective in child mental, physical and cognitive development?

Several studies have been conducted on teaching styles in the recent times, but not many have sought to find the effectiveness of these styles on pupils’ academic performance or on teachers’ effective teaching. It is against this background that that the researcher deemed it fit to use this study to evaluate the teaching style and pupils academic performance in pre-primary school.


1.3    Theoretical Framework.

The theoretical framework of the study is on the work of:

  1. Piaget (1974) theory of intellectual development.
  2. Howard Gardner (1983) theory of multiple intelligences.
  3. Eisner (1985) connoisseurship evaluation model.

Piaget views the course of intellectual development in terms of progressive change in cognitive structures. The stages identified by Piaget are:

  • Sensory motor period (0-2years).
  • Preoperational period (2-6 or 7years).
  • Concrete operational period (6 or 7 through 11 or 12years).
  • Formal operational (11 or 12years upward).
  1. Piaget (1974) theory of intellectual development: He believes that pupils cannot and should not be taught concepts until they are developmentally prepared to learn them. He is also concern to transmit knowledge to the pupils.

The theory seeks to describe an extensive cognitive process within the individual pupils. It take little or no accounts either of motivational and emotional components of the learning and teaching process of the profound influences the learning environment and the teaching styles have on both the nature of that process and the outcome of learning.

  1. Gardner’s (1983) theory of multiple intelligence: He suggests that an array of different kinds of intelligence exist in human beings. Gardner’s theory argues that intelligence as it is traditionally defined does not adequate encompass the wide variety of abilities humans display.He argues that pupils will be better served by a broader vision of education where in teachers used different strategyologies, exercises and activities to reach all pupils not just those who excel at linguistics and logical intelligence.
  2. Eisner’s connoisseurship evaluation model (1985): He believes there are three things embedded in evaluation, i.e. description, interpretation and assessment. Eisner has recommended a process called educational connoisseurship that will supposedly produce more hard data and outcomes and furnish a rich quantitative description of educational life as a consequence of effective teaching styles and techniques.

Eisner notes that to employ the procedure of educational criticism, evaluators should ask such questions as what has occurred during the school year. What are the teaching styles and techniques used in achieving the stated educational objectives? How appropriate and effective are the teaching styles?



1.4 Purpose of the Study.

The study intends to find out the teaching style and pupils academic performance in pre-primary school. Specifically, the study is aimed at:

  1. examining the teaching styles that teachers used in Pre-primary School classrooms;
  2. finding out ways teacher maximize teaching strategy to achieve learning outcome for pupils;
  3. examining the effect of teaching strategy on the learning outcome of pupils;
  4. finding out the effects of teaching styles on pupils class participation in Pre-primary School classroom.
    • Research Questions

To achieve the objectives of this study, the following research questions were raised.

  1. What are the teaching styles that teachers used in Pre-primary School classrooms?
  2. In what ways do teachers maximize teaching styles to achieve learning outcome for pupils?
  3. What are the effects of teaching strategy on the learning outcome of pupils?
  4. What are the effects of teaching styles on pupil’s class participation in Pre-primary School classroom?


  • Research Hypotheses

The hypothesis below was formulated to guide this study:

Ho1: There is no significant relationship between the learning outcomes of pupils and the teaching strategy, of teachers.

1.7    Significance of the Study.

The findings of this study would be beneficial to the following:

  1. To the pupils: They will be able to understand when their teacher change the style of teaching and realize that it is an effort in making learning more interesting and eventful.
  2. To the parent: They will be able to get values for their money and commitment to the education of their wards through better academic performance.
  3. To the teacher: The teacher will be able to overcome the problem of using inappropriate teaching styles and there by experience a result oriented teaching.
  4. To the school authority: The school will be able to supervise thoroughly and ensure the use of appropriate teaching styles through their knowledge of features of these teaching styles.
  5. To the government: The government will be able to put in place policy that will make the teachers to undergo training and workshop that will avail them the knowledge of difference teaching styles for the in institutions in the country.

1.8    Scope of the Study.

This study covered the evaluation of the teaching style and pupils academic performance in pre-primary school in selected nursery and pre-primary school shomolu local government area Lagos State. Teachers and pupils in Pre-primary classes in selected schools are covered in the study.


1.9    Operational Definition of Terms.

The study would constantly make use of the following terms: Pre-primary School, teaching styles, Teaching techniques, and Teaching effectiveness.

  1. Teaching styles: It is an embracing concept referring to the teacher’s way of getting pupils to learn through structured strategies.
  2. Pre-primary School: Formal education that is received from (0- 6years)
  3. Teaching effectiveness: The ability of the teacher to achieve the stated objectives at the end of the teaching.
  4. Teaching techniques: Teacher’s ways or strategy of teaching.


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