Full Project – National housing policy – prospects and challenges of implementation
1.1 Background of the Study
Housing is a crucial basic need of every human being just as food and clothing (Aribigbola, 2006:53). It is very fundamental to the welfare, survival and health of man (Fadamiro et al, 2004). Hence, housing is one of the best indicators of a person’s standard of living and his place in the society. The location and type of housing can determine or affect the status of man in the society. Kehinde (2010) noted that shelter is central to the existence of man. He submitted further that housing involves access to land, shelter and the necessary amenities to make the shelter functional, convenient, aesthetically pleasing, safe and hygienic. Hence, unsanitary, unhygienic, unsafe and inadequate housing can affect the security, physical health and privacy of man. Invariably, the performance of the housing sector is one of the yardsticks by which the health of a nation is measured (see Amdii, 1993; Angel, 2000; Blunt and Dawling, 2006; Charles, 2003; and Sulyman, 2000). The World Health Organisation (1961) stated that a good house should have the following items:
- A good roof to keep out the rain
- Good walls and doors to protect against bad weather and to keep out animals.
- Sunshades all around the house to protect it from direct sunlight in hot weather.
- Wire nettings at windows and doors to keep out insects like house flies and mosquitoes.
In essence, housing quality can be judged from the physical appearance of the buildings, facilities provided, quality of wall used in the building construction, eminence of the roofing materials, condition of other structural components of the house, and the environmental condition of the house. Hence, the inadequacy of housing in terms of quality and quantity results in poor standard of the environment.
- Statement Of The Problem
Housing problem is peculiar to both rich and poor nations as well as developed and developing countries. Certain problems are associated with housing worldwide. They include shortage of housing (qualitatively and quantitatively), homelessness, government shortsightedness about the needs of the people, access to building land, house cost in relation to specification and space standard, as well as high interest rate of home loans. The reasons for shortage of housing in Nigeria include poverty, high rate of urbanization, high cost of building materials, as well as rudimentary technology of building. Kabir (2004) posited that although the federal and some state government intervened by providing mass housing, only the rich and the privileged can afford it. He submitted that the intervention of government include the formation of federal housing authority, the establishment of the Federal Mortgage Bank of Nigeria, as well as the creation of the Ministry of Housing, Urban Development and Environment. Nevertheless, he opined that in spite of government’s effort to tackle the housing problems, the Nigerian housing situation is still in crisis, and sustainable housing delivery has been seriously hampered.
1.3 Research Questions
This study will address the following research questions:
- What has past Nigerian government done in terms of low-income housing provisions through policy implementation in the region?
- What factors are responsible for the ineffectiveness witnessed in the implementation of low-income public housing programmes by past Nigerian governments?
- What other factors could be a barrier to the provision of affordable public housing to the low-income group in the region?
- What could be done to improve the system for effective implementation of affordable public housing policies for an improved low-income public housing provision in the region?
1.4 Aim and Objectives
This project is aimed at investigating the National Housing Policy: Prospects and Challenges of Implementation.
The following are the objectives to aid the achievement of the aim:
- To review previous government low-income housing policy implementation and their effectiveness in the provision of affordable public housing for the low-income group in the region.
- To identify the factors responsible for failure in the implementation of affordable public housing for the low-income group in the region.
- To identify other possible barriers affecting the provision of affordable public housing for the low-income groups in the region.
- To recommend applicable strategic actions in form of a model to facilitate improvement in the implementation of affordable low-income public housing policies in the region.
1.5 Hypothesis of the Study
H0:- Housing Policy, Access to Land, Urbanization and Planning Constraint are not the factors that affect the efforts toward the provision of affordable federal low-income public housing in the region
H1:- Housing Policy, Access to Land, Urbanization and Planning Constraint are the factors that affect the efforts toward the provision of affordable federal low-income public housing in the region.
HO: The effort of the government in terms of the formulation and implementation of the National Housing Policy is not commendable
HI: The effort of the government in terms of the formulation and implementation of the National Housing Policy is quite commendable.
1.6 Significance of the Study
Several meanings are attached to housing; however, housing is literally seen as buildings, shelters, homes, a dwelling place, etc. where people live. Historically, housing was viewed as one of the major determinants of the standard of living achieved by households, it has a direct bearing, literally, on how well households lived. In other words, the kind of housing an individual occupies provides information about her/his status, standard of living and taste. In most communities in Nigeria, and indeed Africa, the type of house one occupies is predominantly used as yardstick to assess one’s social status. The housing of a community also provides significantly reliable information on how rich or poor she is.
The study will also be of great benefit for other student researchers’ who may want to venture into the same subject matter. Having often results – both empirically and theoretically, the study will serve as a foundation for future research studies.
1.7 Scope and Limitations
This research is restricted or limited to investigating the National Housing Policy: Prospects and Challenges of Implementation. The area location of this study is limited to selected site at Owerri metropolis, Imo State. Some of the limitations to this research study are: lack of adequate finance, time restraint etc.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Housing is defined as the process of providing safe, comfortable, attractive, functional affordable and identifiable shelter in a proper setting within a neighbourhood, supported by continuous maintenance of the built environment for the daily living activities of individuals/families within the community while reflecting their socio-economic, cultural aspirations and preferences. Also, housing includes the sustainability attributes of energy efficiency and resource conservation for improved quality of life (Federal Government of Nigeria, 2012).
Policy refers to the dynamic and value laden process through which a political system handles a public problem (Fowler, 2000). A housing policy, therefore, provides a guide which delimits action and sets goals but does not necessarily specify any defined strategies for achieving the goal other than broad strategies. It establishes guidelines and limits for discretionary actions by individuals responsible for implementing the overall plans of action (Olatubara, 2002).
Fundamentally, policy implementation is the process of translating policy into actions and presumptions into results through various projects and programmes (Okoli and Onah, 2003; Ikelegbe, 2006). Public Housing Housing provided for people unable to obtain “decent, safe and sanitary dwellings” by government (Jacob, 2003)
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Full Project – National housing policy – prospects and challenges of implementation