Full Project – Knowledge, attitudes, practices and perceived benefits of environmental sanitation among adults

Full Project – Knowledge, attitudes, practices and perceived benefits of environmental sanitation among adults

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Environmental Sanitation is defined as the principles and practice of effecting healthful and hygienic conditions in the environment to promote public health and welfare, improve quality of life and ensure a sustainable environment (Ekong 2015). An environment that is hazard free and promotes healthful living is a fundamental right of all humans. However, dumping of fecal matter near homes, contamination of sources of drinking water, poorly designed sewage system, dumping of refuseand sweeping into the drainages, defecating by the street sides and disposing of feces by the street corners and waterways, selling food materials and cooked food by the road side are all unhealthy practices that pose potential risk to the development of diseases. Washing of hands after defecation and before preparing food is of particular importance in reducing disease transmission.

Poor housing also contributes to poor environmental health and its consequent input in the health of the Nigerians. Measures for the prevention of disease mostly consist of providing clean water and proper sanitation to populations who do not yet have access to basic services of environmental sanitation. Health education and good food hygiene are equally important (Ekong, 2015). Poor sanitary conditions of our environment provide a suitable breeding ground for pathogens. This situation leads to the wide spread of diseases especially in the tropical areas such as Nigeria. Some of the tropical diseases that have become difficult to control due to filthy conditions of our environment are malaria, cholera, diarrhea, ascariasis, lower respiratory infections and unintentional injuries. All of this is contrary to the notion of environmental sanitation which aims at “developing and maintaining a clean, safe and pleasant physical environment in all human settlements” (IRC, 2006; FRN, 2005). One third of all disease is caused by the environmental factors such as unsafe water and air pollution in some adults and children under five, (WHO 2012).

In Nigeria, environmental sanitation is an often misconstrued subject matter;it is usually understood as an exercise rather than a practice. Environmental conditions in many areas threaten to reverse the gains made in public health over the last several decades” Every human should have a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature, (Ayres 2000).

According to national environmental standards and regulations enforcement agency (2011), inappropriate and inadequate regulations for the protection of our environment constitute a major challenge to socio-economic development. Most public health problems are as a result of environmental sanitation problems such as poor housing condition, inadequate sanitation, insufficient or contaminated water, and smoky cooking fuels (Basher 2002).


The conditions of modern way of life have created many problems relating to man’s environment. There are three Sub-factors of environment which affect the human health, namely physical factors, biological factors and social factors. Examples of physical factors are, weather, climate, housing, soil, and food supply, air (clean or polluted) etc. Examples of biological factors are germs, insects, rodents, plants, animals and even human beings. We will however focus attention on the following problems areas in our environment.  “General sanitation problem” It is expected that when the environmental sanitation standards of a city improve, there will be upliftment in the living condition and health security for the inhabitants. Thus, there will be progress in the quality and visual of the environment at large. Unsafe sanitation is responsible for 775,000 deaths each year globally and about 2.4 billion people do not have access to improved sanitation. If we look around us in our cities, towns and villages, we see several conditions which encourage dirt and the spread of infections. We seem so helpless about what to do yet this condition do exist simply because of our individual’s habits and actions 15% of the world still practice open defecation (WHO fact sheet). It may be suggested that most Nigerians are not adequately educated about health to know that our environment is what we make of it, and that government expects us to play our own part in keeping it healthy even while we look up to them to govern for leadership. Poor sanitation is linked to transmission of diseases such as cholera, diarrhea, dysentery, hepatitis A, typhoid and polio and exacerbates stunting. Poor sanitation reduces human well-being, social and economic development due to impacts such as anxiety, risk of sexual assault, and lost educational opportunities.

“Sewage and Refuse Disposal” Inadequate collection and improper disposal of environmental wastes facilitates multiplication of pathogens causing diseases like cholera and diarrhea and provides good breeding site for disease vectors like mosquitoes (malaria), flies (diarrhea) and rodents (Abul 2010). Inadequate sanitation is estimated to cause 432 000 diarrheal deaths annually and is a major factor in several neglected tropical diseases, including intestinal worms, schistosomiasis, and trachoma.827 000 people in low- and middle-income countries die as a result of inadequate water, sanitation, and hygiene each year, representing 60% of total diarrheal deaths, Poor sanitation is believed to be the main cause in some 432 000 of these deaths. Diarrhea remains a major killer but is largely preventable. Better water, sanitation, and hygiene could prevent the deaths of 297 000 children aged under 5 years each year. Poor sanitation also contributes to malnutrition. At least 10% of the world’s population is thought to consume food irrigated by wastewater. Dump. Proper environmental waste disposal is a big problem in urban cities and more so in developing countries. The intensity of the waste management problem increases with increased population due to the increased human activities and the solid wastes to be removed for disposal.  Industries and urban management systems generate massive amount of wastes and most often dumping them in open fields posing a serious detrimental effects on the environment (Safiuddin et al 2010). 2.0 billion People still do not have basic sanitation facilities such as toilets or latrines (globally) of these, 673 million still defecate in the open, for example in street gutters, behind bushes or into open bodies of water.


Research on environmental sanitation in Osogbo Local Government Area is limited; hence, there is a gap in the knowledge about environmental sanitation in the community. Thepurpose of this study is to fill the gap in knowledge about what is currently known concerning this subject matter within the proposed study location.The purpose of this study is to provide current information which potentially may be used by other scholars, researchers, policymakers and community members in diverse ways in the nearest future.


  • Are adults in Osogbo LGA knowledgeable about environmental sanitation?
  • What attitudes do adults in Osogbo LGA have towards environmental sanitation?
  • What actions/activities in relation to environmental sanitation are undertaken by adults in Osogbo LGA?
  • What perceptions do adults in Osogbo LGA have about the benefits of environmental sanitation?
  •  Are there any statistically significant relationships between categorical variables being investigated?


To assess the knowledge, attitude, practices and perceived benefits of environmental sanitation among adults in Osogbo LocalGovernment Area, Osun state.


  • To determine the level of knowledge on environmental sanitation among adults in Osogbo LGA
  •  To assess the attitudes adults in Osogbo LGA have towards environmental sanitation
  •  To identify the practices of adults in Osogbo LGA on environmental sanitation
  •  To determine their perceptions about thebenefits of environmental sanitation.
  •  To explore associations between categorical variables in order to establish the presence of statistically significant relationships


Environment: is the complex of physical, chemical, and biotic factors (such as climate, soil, and living things) that act upon an organism or an ecological community and ultimately determine its form and survival (Merriam Webster dictionary 2021).

Sanitation: the promotion of hygiene and prevention of disease by maintenance of sanitary conditions especially by providing a sewage system, trash disposer and a clean water supply. (Merriam e-Webster).

Environmental sanitation: Environmental Sanitation is defined as the principles and practice of effecting healthful and hygienic conditions in the environment to promote public health and welfare, improve quality of life and ensure a sustainable environment (Ibanga Eyo Ekong 2015).

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Full Project – Knowledge, attitudes, practices and perceived benefits of environmental sanitation among adults