Full Project – IMPACT OF TEACHERS’ QUALIFICATION ON PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPIL ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
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IMPACT OF TEACHERS’ QUALIFICATION ON PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPIL ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
1.1 Background of the Study
Teachers’ job performance is defined as the extent to which students’ performance improves after a period of instruction in a manner consistent with the instructional goals (Olatoye, 2006). He discovered that evaluating teachers’ job performance based on a single score or scores that do not span a long period of time can lead to a “miscarriage of judgment.” Omoniyi (2005) supported Olatoye (2006)’s findings by observing that effective learning and teaching include activities that provide students with the most productive and beneficial learning experience and promote their development as learners.
Measuring teachers’ job performance in the classroom, rather than at the school level, is becoming a more prominent focus of effectiveness research (Cunningham and Stone, 2005). For many years, researchers have focused on determining teacher job performance by examining teachers’ contributions to student achievement gains, but a lack of valid measures and instrumentation has hampered the process. Only in the last 10-15 years have academics had access to significant processing capacity, substantial data on student accomplishment connected to specific instructors, and proper statistical models to measure effectiveness in terms of teachers’ contribution to students’ learning. The end result is a collection of complex statistical models that, when combined with linked student-teacher data, are used to assess teachers’ contributions to the student achievement progress of the students they teach in a given year. These value-added models are promising, contentious, and becoming more widespread as a technique of measuring teacher effectiveness (where effectiveness is defined as instructors’ contributions to success).
Holtzapple (2003) used Danielson’s (1996) Framework for Teaching to compare student accomplishment with teacher evaluation scores in Cincinnati using a value-added approach of predicted vs actual achievement. The author discovered a link between teachers’ observation scores and their value-added scores: teachers who received low ratings on the instructional domain of the teacher evaluation system had students with lower achievement, while teachers who received advanced or distinguished ratings on this domain had students with higher-than-expected scores, and teachers rated proficient had students with average gains.
The models stated above are a relatively new method of measuring teachers’ job effectiveness, and there are studies that endorse its usage (for example, Hamre and Pianta, 2005; Sanders, 2005). According to these researchers, value-added Models give an objective way of identifying whether instructors are successful in boosting student learning as evaluated by improvements on standardized examinations. Despite these potentially positive applications for value-added models, some researchers express reservations and raise serious concerns about their use in evaluating teacher effectiveness (Bracey, 2004; Braun, 20055; Kupermitz, 2002; McCreffrey, et al., 2003; Ihum, 2003). According to Bracey (2004) in this critique, the evaluation is not a philosophy of what constitutes a competent teacher in all the complexities that may be necessary.
It has also been found that teachers’ success varies depending on the situation. This implies that instructors are not interchangeable—a teacher who excels in one classroom may struggle in another. As a result, an evaluation of teachers’ job performance should be context, subject, and grade level relevant. Furthermore, judging the efficiency of a primary science teacher on the same scale as that of another teacher at a different school may be difficult, especially if there is a requirement to recognize excellent instructors in certain settings, grades, or topics.
There are various reasons for evaluating instructors’ job performance; one of the most important is to discover instructional weaknesses and devise strategies to fix them. As a result, one purpose of evaluating teachers’ job performance should be to collect data that may be used to develop relevant techniques for improving education. Donal (2003) proposed a “Human resources management” strategy to improve instruction, noting a number of successes in school districts throughout the country, in which vertical and horizontal alignment of practices enables school leaders to carry out instruction objectives. They reported on three Chicago schools that coordinated and aligned human resources to improve practices such as “teacher recruitment and induction, professional development activities, communication of expectations for teacher performance, specification of classroom teaching strategies, provision of encouragement and incentives, principal supervision and evaluation, and removal of underperforming teachers.”
Every known human society’s educational system requires highly qualified teaching people in order to function. This explains why instructors are considered as the most essential component of the educational system (Igwe, 2002). It is often assumed that no educational system can outperform the caliber of its professors. As a result, certification is required to enhance and refresh instructors’ knowledge and abilities.
Teaching as a profession has suffered considerably as a result of the simple view with which it has long been regarded, and as a result of this attitude, teaching has become a job for all comers, including unqualified or untrained instructors as well as badly educated teachers (Okeki, 2008). This problem has had a negative impact on both the quality of teaching and the learning of pupils. However, as teaching receives the attention it deserves, it is becoming more widely recognized as a complicated activity. Ijaiya (2000) observed that teachers use a variety of abilities when teaching since it requires a variety of covert and overt behaviors to have the intended effect on the pupils. He also mentioned technical skills, concept skills, problem solving skills, psychomotor teaching skills, reflective skills, and so on. All of these abilities must thus be taught in teacher education in order to increase teachers’ competency and encourage high-quality instruction.
According to Ijaiya, instructors’ inadequate management of the notion of teaching has exacerbated the teaching-learning situation in schools. The learner’s failure to transfer information across topic areas and weak problem solving abilities may be linked back to a lack of grasp of important ideas. According to Berret (2005), teaching ideas include teaching facts, principles, and generalizations in a variety of disciplines of knowledge. He maintained that most professors teach words that represent concepts rather than the things themselves. He considered concept teaching to be a critical idea that supports other skills such as problem solving abilities. According to him, if a student does not understand the significance of a specific area, he would struggle to solve issues in that field.
Teaching is an art form. Training and practice can help to improve it. The availability of qualified instructors is critical in the educational system’s rehabilitation. The quality of instruction in the classroom is closely tied to the quality of education. Education quality development is dependent on good teacher training. Teachers cannot fulfill any of the jobs unless they have been adequately and professionally trained (Wayne and Youngs, 2003). Muijs (2006) noted that “what is needed is a knowledge of how assessment and instruction are intertwined, with new notions about what assessment is and how it influences learning following a session of excellent instruction by a skilled teacher.” He went on to say that instructors make classroom management decisions based on student accomplishment increases.
Given the Federal Government of Nigeria’s emphasis on teacher training in our educational system, the National Policy on Education (2004) mandates all instructors in our educational institutions from pre-primary to university level to be professionally educated. It goes on to say that teacher education programs should be designed to prepare teachers to do their jobs effectively.
The teacher is supposed to implement curriculum changes, enhance teaching, contribute to the professional growth and development of colleagues, and, most importantly, contribute to students’ academic achievement, and the most effective method to do so is through a well-organized educational program. The teacher’s capacity to develop answers on how to best aid pupils’ performance will be heavily influenced by his professional training.
According to Adeyemi (2008), the majority of instructors are unable to demonstrate appropriate knowledge and comprehension of the structure, function, and evolution of their subject due to weak teacher preparation programs. As a result, an effective teacher education program is a prerequisite for self-reliant education, which leads to a high level of confidence in the teacher and their students, allowing learning to be coordinated effectively and professionally, and problems inherent in the teaching process to be rectified and solved (Leither, 2003).
According to Omoifo and Okaka (2010), understanding of the subject matter is the most important attribute, factor, and characteristic that a teacher must possess in order to properly fulfill his or her responsibilities as a teacher. They contended that the professional qualification of the instructor determines this professional quality. They went on to say that in order for a teacher to be effective in delivering his lesson, he must have a strong command of the subject matter, which means he must comprehend the fundamental principles and concepts of the topic to be taught.
According to Martneau (2006), instructors have a considerable influence on pupils’ academic results. Teachers have a direct impact on how students learn, what they learn, how much they learn, how they engage with one another, and how they interact with the environment around them. The impact of the classroom instructor on student accomplishment is obvious, because student achievement begins and ends with the quality of the teacher. Martneau determined that a professionally qualified teacher improves students’ success by around 53% over a year, whereas an unqualified teacher improves students’ achievement by about 14% over a year.
According to Bruce (2005) and Byrne (2003)’s research, professionally prepared instructors display a solid comprehension of instructional materials and ideas, employ production tools to enhance professional activities such as correspondence, assessment, classroom materials presentations, and so on. Qualified teachers demonstrate introductory knowledge, skills, and understanding of concepts related to the use of materials required for the instructional process and continuous technological growth, knowledge and skills to stay abreast of current and emerging technologies, and informed decisions regarding the use of technology in support of students’ learning.
According to Oladunjoye (2005), skilled instructors have a better awareness of school activities and even potential activities, and they seek to maintain the stability of students’ academic progress. He also proposed that non-certified instructors be required to take basic teacher qualification courses in order to be exposed to pedagogical skills in order to assure competences and functional specialization, exactly like qualified teachers.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Many Nigerians are concerned about the issue of deteriorating educational standards and low academic performance of pupils. When these concerns are brought up and debated, teachers are frequently blamed for the downturn in the education system. The argument has frequently been made that teachers do not accomplish their duties successfully. Some attribute low teacher job performance to a shortage of skilled primary school instructors. As a result, an analytic assessment of the impact of instructors’ academic qualifications on students’ academic achievement is required.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The overall aim of the study was to find out influence of teachers’ qualification on primary school academic performance in Ikorodu LGA of Lagos state
1.4 Research Questions
1. What is the level of academic performance of primary school pupils in Ikoodu LGA of Lagos State?
2. Is there a difference in job performance of qualified and unqualified teachers in primary schools in Ikoodu LGA of Lagos State?
1.5 Significance Of The Study
This research is more than just a piece of scholarly work. It has a lot of advantages. The relevance of the outcome may vary due to the fact that it would offer vital information to the state and federal governments of Nigeria, teachers, educational stakeholders, policymakers, and others on the impacts of teacher credentials on student academic achievement. This research will also contribute its fair share to educating the public about the perception that teaching is viewed as a dumping ground for any unemployed school leavers, regardless of their field of expertise.
The purpose of the research is to teach the general public about the necessity of training individuals who are capable of providing the greatest possible education to pupils in our various institutions. And why is it important to hire only professionals, such as those with a National Certificate in Education (NCE) or a Bachelor’s degree, in our secondary schools?
Finally, the initiative will inform the general public, particularly teachers, on the appropriate course of action to follow in order to avoid half-backed instructors.
1.6 Scope Of The Study
The study is centered on some selected secondary schools in Ikoodu LGA of Lagos State. It is limited to the effect of teacher qualifications and the academic performance of students.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Influence: the capacity to have an effect on the character, development, or behaviour of someone or something, or the effect itself.
Qualification: a pass of an examination or an official completion of a course, especially one conferring status as a recognized practitioner of a profession or activity.
Teachers: A teacher is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values. Informally the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone.
Academic Performance: is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals.
Primary School: (or elementary school in American English and often in Canadian English) is a school in which children receive primary or elementary education from the age of about five to twelve, coming after preschool and before primary school.
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Full Project – IMPACT OF TEACHERS’ QUALIFICATION ON PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPIL ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE