Full Project – FACTORS MILITATING AGAINST EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF INTEGRATED SCIENCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Full Project – FACTORS MILITATING AGAINST EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF INTEGRATED SCIENCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

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ABSTRACT

The study examined “factors militating against effective teaching and learning of integrated science in secondary schools”. The study objectives are to: Insufficient numbers of qualified teachers affects students’ mass failure in Integrated science subjects; Unavailability of instructional materials for teaching of Integrated science subject affects students’ mass failure in Integrated science subjects; The previous socio-economic backgrounds of the students affect them in studying Integrated science subject; and the attitude and interest of students towards the nature of Integrated science subject contribute deeply to their mass failure in SSCE. The study employed the descriptive survey design.  The nature of the problem was duly considered in the study.  The research design used for this study is the survey design. The reason why this design was adopted was because the researcher would make use of the primary data obtained through the questionnaire. The area of the study covers students of five selected secondary schools located within Eti-Osa Local Government Area, Lagos, Lagos. The target population consists of public secondary school students in Eti-Osa Local Government Area, Lagos. Simple random sampling technique was adopted for the study. The researcher useD a total of one hundred (100) students from five (5) selected public secondary schools in Eti-Osa Local Government Area, Lagos. The research instrument used was questionnaire. The data collected was analyzed using simple percentage while hypotheses were tested using Chi-Square Statistics. The study recommended that Government both at the federal and state levels should employ more qualified teachers for secondary schools to ensure efficiency and optimal performance in Integrated science subject. The study also recommended that Teachers should develop positive relationship with students and stress classroom activities, that will involve active teaching-learning process and students participation in the class. The study concludes that insufficient numbers of qualified Integrated science teachers and instructional materials for teaching affects Integrated science subject.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of the Study

Integrated science is one of the subjects in post primary school. It is an important subject taught in the secondary schools. Integrated science is important both to students and the society at large because it cuts across all spheres of human endeavour, as it can be seen in its simpler definition by Professor Lord Robbins (1932).

Integrated science is associated with scarcity and choice. Robbins defined integrated science as “a science that studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses”. The above definition is widely accepted by the generality of Integrated science because it embodies the basic concepts of Integrated science and the main fundamental problems of Man-Wants, scarcity, choice, exchange and opportunity cost.

Integrated science according to Hornby (1973) is the study of production and distribution of money and goods of a country. It is the study of how people of a society choose to use their limited resources like land, capital, labour, goods and technical knowledge to provide various goods and services for the consumption of the people in the society.

Pigou (1972) believe that integrated science makes it easier to institute practical measures to promote welfare, so that the society may build upon the work of Economists. He concluded by saying that the study is not worthwhile for its own sake but only for the healing that the knowledge may help to bring. Integrated science is relevant to the field of science and art. It enable the individuals to think in the sense that he/she is able to apply its principles to solve practical problems and avoid unnecessary costly mistakes, it enables the individual to understand better the relationship between himself and his fellow human beings in his effort to make a living. From another view, integrated science education may prepare one for a career.

Notwithstanding, it has been observed that there are many problems militating against the teaching and learning of integrated science in Post primary schools as enumerated by many writers on problem of integrated science in Nigeria. They attributed the high level of failures in integrated science to lack of students concentration in the classroom, their view steamed from observed students performance in integrated science.

Thus, observed failure could be as a result of inability of the students to understand economic terms, lack of finance to buy relevant textbooks, inadequate teachers, inability of the students’ to interpret integrated science table and graph, inappropriate and ineffective method of teaching, lack of control over the attitudes of students and teachers and others which have contributed to low level of teaching integrated science in secondary schools.

Okorie (1979: 152) suggested that for the effective teaching to take place, the skillful teacher needs to use the many effective method and techniques effectively because in them his success and failure depends. He further emphasized that the success in the use of methods depends on the intelligent analysis of educational purposes, pupil in the class and the curriculum content of the moment.

A few moment reflection is sufficient to reveal that every society faces crucial issues and problem in education which have very serious economic angles that cannot be overlooked easily for instance, the production of education as well as the acquisition of education both require the use of large qualities of scare resources (Production of education requires conducive classrooms, administrative blocks, personnel, librarians, laboratories while the acquisition of education requires expenditures on tuition fees, book, travels, uniform, lodging etc. and students time.

1.2    Statement of the Problem

Integrated science is been taught in secondary schools in Eti-Osa Local Government Area of Lagos State and it has been observed that students in government secondary school Ajah performed poorly in the 2012 May/June Senior Certificate Examination. It has also been observed that there are lots of factors militating against the effective teaching and learning of integrated science in secondary schools in the study area.

poor performance in Secondary School Certificate Examination (WAEC) is caused by many factors such as; students ineffective study techniques, quality of teachers and method of teaching, the parents inability to provide useful materials like textbooks, exercise books and school fees and problem of inadequate instructional materials for teaching and learning of Integrated science in schools.

However, the pivoting problems of integrated science is complex and can minimally be solved if the teachers and students change their attitude towards teaching and learning in schools generally and to integrated science in particular.

 1.3    Purpose of the Study

Study has been undertaken with a view to identify the problems involved in the teaching and learning of integrated science in secondary schools and Eti-Osa Local Government Area and factors responsible for these problems. Specifically, the study sought to find out if:-

  1. Insufficient numbers of qualified teachers affects students’ mass failure in Integrated science subjects.
  2. Unavailability of instructional materials for teaching of Integrated science subject affects students’ mass failure in Integrated science subjects,
  3. The previous socio-economic backgrounds of the students affect them in studying Integrated science subject.
  4. The attitude and interest of students towards the nature of Integrated science subject contribute deeply to their mass failure in SSCE.

Research Questions

In assessing the purpose of the study, this research project will answer the following questions:

  1. Does insufficient numbers of qualified Integrated science teachers affects students’ mass failure in Integrated science subject?
  2. Does unavailability of instructional materials for teaching of Integrated science subject affects students’ mass failure in Integrated science subjects?
  3. Does previous socio-economic background of the students affect them in studying Integrated science subject?
  4. How would interest of students towards the nature of Integrated science subject contribute deeply to their mass failure in SSCE?

 Research Hypotheses

In carrying out this research work the following theoretical statements are buttressed to serve as a direction on which the work will be premised:

  1. H0: Insufficient numbers of qualified Integrated science teachers does not affects students’ mass failure of students in Integrated science subject

H1Insufficient numbers of qualified Integrated science teachers and instructional materials teaching affects Integrated science subject.

  1. H0: There is no significant relationship between availability of instructional materials for teaching of Integrated science subject and students’ mass failure in Integrated science subjects.

H1:   There is significant   relationship   between availability of instructional materials for teaching of Integrated science subject and students’ mass failure in Integrated science subjects.

 1.6    Scope of the Study

The research work seeks to examine the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of integrated science in secondary. The study will be limited to five selected schools in Eti-Osa Local Government Area, Lagos.

1.7   Significance of the Study

There is need to apply knowledge from integrated science to many area of our life in other to benefit the society. The achievements of the objective necessitates an understanding of the basic teaching of integrated science. We cannot attain national objectives in the light of poor or average performances in examinations and lack of application of integrated science to life students.

Without doubt, improved teaching and learning of integrated science will spur us into greater heights. This study will help to make our educational administrators to see the need to have qualified integrated science teachers to handle the subject effectively for the benefit of the students and society at large.

This study will help to sensitize the educational administrators to appreciate the need to make available the necessary materials, example, chalkboard, graphs, audio-visual materials etc. that will enhance effective learning of integrated science if they are not available.

This study will if need be direct the integrated science teachers’ attention to the need for them to adopt more appropriate teaching method in order to bring about the above mentioned desirable experience in the learners. This study will have a great significance because it is going to provide information to integrated science teachers for formation and evaluation of their plans.

It will be useful to learners for through this, they will be able to identify the factors militating against the proper teaching and learning of integrated science. This study will help to produce sound integrated science students that will function very well in the economy such as:

(a) Knowing how to use scarce productive resources with alternative uses to meet prescribed ends and be able to apply the principles of integrated science.

(b)  The product of integrated science that should be able to pick employment within a limited employment opportunity in any economy.

This work will serve as a source of encouragement to students and teachers that will come across it. It is hoped that the findings of this study would also form the basis for further research work by future researchers on this issue.

 1.8 Definition of Terms

Integrated science: the branch of knowledge concerned with the production, consumption, and transfer of wealth.

Instructional Materials: These are materials that are used to aid in the transference of information from one student to another in Education arena.

Teaching: the act or profession of a person who teaches.

Job Performance: This is the work related activities expected of an employee and how well those activities were executed.

Remuneration: Reward for employment in the form of pay, salary, or wage, including allowances, benefits (such as medical plan, pension plan), bonuses, cash incentives, and monetary value of the noncash incentives.

Condition of Work: Regulations governing on-the-job standards and conditions of work such as those affecting health and safety of workers.

 

Project Overview

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