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In-service training is a sort of education that supports employees in learning the knowledge, skills, and attitudes essential for their jobs. In-service training aims to provide employees with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes essential to increase their success, productivity, and happiness at work (Daneshfard 2010:24)

Training and  development increase the worker productivity like the researcher said in his research that  training and  development is an important activity to increase the productivity of health sector organization (Iftikhar  and Siraj-ud-din, 2009:44).Another researcher said that worker productivity is the important factor and the building block which increases the productivity of overall organization (Partlow 2006:18).Worker productivity depends on many factors like job satisfaction, knowledge and management but there is relationship between training and productivity (Chris,2010:42).This shows that worker productivity is important for the productivity of the organization and the and the training and  development is beneficial for the worker to improve its productivity.

Training plays a critical part in achieving an organization’s goals by balancing the organization’s and workforce’s objectives (Stone, 2002:85). Nowadays, training is the most critical aspect in the corporate sector, as it improves both the efficiency and effectiveness of employees and the company. The productivity of employees is determined by a variety of factors. However, the most critical component affecting worker productivity is training. Training is critical for enhancing workers’ capacities. Workers with greater on-the-job experience perform better because their abilities and competences improve as a result of the increased experience (Fakhar 2004:92). Additionally, training has an effect on the return on investment (Richard 2005:63.). Human resources are critical and the backbone of every organization; they are also the organizations’ primary resource. Thus, organizations spend heavily on human capital since the productivity of human resources eventually improves the organization’s productivity. Productivity is a significant multidimensional construct aimed at achieving outcomes and is inextricably linked to an organization’s strategic goals (Mwita, 2000:15).

Organizational success is dependent on worker productivity, since human resource capital plays a critical role in the organization’s growth and productivity. Thus, training is provided to the organization’s employees in order to increase organizational productivity and worker productivity. Through experience and training, humans gain the essential information, technical skills, and behavioral characteristics to accomplish their job tasks and obligations. On the one hand, the majority of workers require training to fulfill their job obligations or to improve the quality and quantity of their work; on the other hand, trained and efficient workforce is the single most critical aspect in an organization’s success (Alagha , 2004:45).

Organizations make an attempt to mold the individuals’ competencies and skills to fit the organization. Contemporary organizations and management theories assume that employee adaptability benefits both the organization and the personnel. Job happiness, needed productivity, and a sense of belonging to the company are all fulfilled via the organization’s and individual’s harmony. It is critical to acquire the necessary skills, competencies, and suitable role behaviors, as well as to exhibit behaviors consistent with the research groups’ organizational values and norms, when implementing the adaptation. The adaption may be accomplished through the use of in-service training facilities (van dorsal 2000:32).

Mwita (2000:17) explains that productivity is the key element to achieve the goals of the organization so as productivity increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization which is helpful for the achievement of the organizational goals. But the question arise that how an worker can work more effectively and efficiently to increase the growth and the productivity of an  organization(Qaiser Abbas and Sara Yaqoob 2003).

Improving the efficiency of organizations depends on increasing the efficiency of human resource and it, in turn, depends on training and knowledge and skill development and creating favourable behaviour of a successful working. Of course, trainings which are purposeful, continuous and high-content and are planned and executed by experienced professors and instructors in teaching are likely to increase the efficiency and productivity (Ghelichli, 2007:72).


Training and development of workers has been the practice in organizations all over the world especial in development economies. However, in developing countries one of which is Nigeria-the implementation has not been rampart. It is obvious that organization have different problems. The problems may arise as a result of the size of the organization, the structure and the objectives or missions it want to actives or missions it want to achieve.

The benefits of training and development of workers includes the integration of principles, concepts, theory and behavioural knowledge with management practice to achieve optimum result, sharpening of skills of the workers in his field, boosts the morale of the trainee and makes for optimum output on the part of the trainee. Training and development in the long run makes for industrial harmony in the organization and increases the organizations productivity and competitive edge. However  whenever the basic element in-service training and development is not found the organisation is bound to experience low output, morale of the workers will be low, staff turnover will be at high side .industrial action, high rate of industrial accidents. Pertained to the above the study seeks to investigate evaluation of in-service training and development on worker productivity.


The broad objective of the study is to examine the evaluation of in-service training and development on worker productivity. The specific objectives are:

  • To determine the relationship between In-service training/development and organisational productivity.
  • To identify the relationship between in-service training and worker productivity.
  • To determine the extent to which In-service training/development affect growth and promotion of workers.
  • To ascertain how  In-service training/development  increase specialised knowledge of workers



Consequent upon the above objectives, the following research questions were developed.

  1. (1) What is the relationship between In-service training/development and organisational   productivity?.
  2. What is the relationship between in-service training and worker productivity?
  1. To what extent does In-service training/development affect growth and promotion of workers ?.
  1. How does in-service training/development increase specialised    knowledge of workers?



The   under listed hypotheses   stated in the null form were designed to further guide the study:

  1. Ho: There is no significant relationship between In-service

training/development and       organisational   productivity.

Hi:       There is significant relationship between In-service

training/development and organisational   productivity.

  1. Ho:      There is no significant  relationship between in-service training and

worker productivity

Hi:       There is no significant  relationship between in-service training and

worker productivity

  1. Ho: In-service training/development  do not significantly  affect the

growth and promotion of workers.

Hi:       In-service training/development  significantly  affect the  growth and promotion of workers.


4          Ho:      In-service training/development do not significantly  increase

specialised  knowledge of workers.

Hi:       In-service training/development Significantly  increase specialised

knowledge of workers



  1. this study will expose organisations to understand that in- service training and development help organisations to become effective and efficient and the workers to develop and become more satisfied and self-actualised
  2. Through this study organisations can reduce staff turnover and absenteeism and increase    workers self- esteem
  3. It is significant in the sense that its findings will serve as a base and framework for future researchers to carry out further studies


The research covered three selected companies in the Abia State all revolve around manufacture industries in Nigeria. The companies are glass industry, Nigeria breweries and 7up bottling company: And also the study confirmed on concept of In-service training and development, method of training and development, Objective of training, approaches of training, evaluation of training and development, problem and mistake in training and development etc.


In carrying out a research of this nature, it is not uncommon to encounter a number of constraints. Some of the limitations of the study included:

  • Financial constraints: The huge cost involved in carrying out a complete study of a whole organization, is not easily afforded by a student. The researcher therefore limited her study to only five firms in the country.
  • Time constraints: The time required for this dissertation was not enough. This is because the research was done at the same time a serious course work was going on in school.
  • Attitudes of Respondents: Appointments with some of the top officers of the companies were difficult to achieve. Some of the respondents refused to answer the questions asked to them, while some refused out rightly to grant interviews, this posed limitations to the completion of the work.
  • Power supply: The researcher also had problem with the epileptic power supply in the country. It was difficult to access the internet without steady light. What the researcher had wanted to download was not all possible. And some materials relevant to the work could not be accessed because of the international mode of required payment. Again, the typing of the work was unnecessarily delayed because of the same power supply problem. The use of the generating machine for alternative power supply hiked the budget cost of the work. This was not anticipated in the planning stage of this work.



For the purpose of clarification and understanding of this study, some concepts require operational definition

Training: This activity is both focused upon, and evaluated against, the job that an individual   currently holds (Agu, 2001:23)

In-Service Training:  In-service training is education for workers to help them develop their skills in a specific discipline or occupation. In-service training takes place after an individual begins work responsibilities (Onuoha: 2000:43)

Development: development is the process of developing the workers and managers to their fullest capabilities (Chima: 2003:32)

Organisational productivity: According to Richard et al. (2009) organizational productivity encompasses three specific areas of firm outcomes: (a) financial productivity (profits, return on assets, return on investment, etc.); (b) product market productivity (sales, market share, etc.); and (c) shareholder return (total shareholder return, economic value added,


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