Full Project – Design and construction of fire alarm system using thermistor
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
In modern society, it is impossible to imagine house or building without a fire accident detector. Modern houses require a continuous installation of fire detector. Not only industry, but also in the household. Take the case of a duplex that experience a fire accident without a detector that means everything in that building will get burnt even human beings. But in a case whereby fire alarm is installed that means everyone in that building will be alerted and also fire security bodies will also be informed for quick security action. The same thing can also happen to our offices and industries. In order to notify residence of any building in the presence of fire accident, a fire alarm system is used
Due to the fast development in telecommunication technologies, it is believed that wireless communication is a good practice for remote sensing and automation in industrial and residential locations. Nigeria, like any developing country, is witnessing an era of rapid economic and social development. This development brings with it, new technologies, new materials, power sources and telecommunication equipment. Modern industries are springing up housing volatile materials and highly sophisticated equipment that increase the menace of fire. Concern for safety of lives and properties calls for an efficient and dependable fire protection system. This has enhanced the application of new technologies in the fire field. Sensors are able to consider certain dynamic and static variables such as humidity, the type of fuel, slope of the land, the direction and the speed of the wind, smoke , to mention a few.
The most essential electronic device at home or industry or any other place where there is a chance of fire accident is a fire alarm circuit. The fire alarm circuit can be defined as an electronic circuit used for identifying fire accident and alert. Thus, by using the fire alarm circuit, we can avoid financial loss and also save people from dangerous fire accidents.
An automatic fire alarm system is designed to detect the unwanted presence of fire by monitoring environmental changes associated with combustion. In general, a fire alarm system is classified as either automatically actuated, manually actuated, or both. Automatic fire alarm systems are intended to notify the building occupants to evacuate in the event of a fire or other emergency, report the event to an off-premises location in order to summon emergency services, and to prepare the structure and associated systems to control the spread of fire and smoke.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Safety is a crucial consideration in design of residential and commercial buildings
in order to safeguard against loss of life and damage to property. Fire is a key
element in safety considerations.
This project therefore seeks to design a microcontroller based smoke alarm that will continuously monitor the presence of significant amount of smoke and activate an alarm to prompt a safety measure to contain the situation. There is also an extra functionality of LCD display for visual alert.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES
The aim of this project is to design and construct a fire alarm system using thermistor.
The objectives of this project are as follows:
1 To utilize the available and cheap method to design and construct a fire alarm system
2 To construct a sensitive system that will collect real time status of the environment.
3 To develop audio warning circuit to indicate presence of fire.
- To design a timing circuit to delay the indication of alarm for specific time period.
1.4 CONTRIBUTION TO KNOWLEDGE
New innovative method will be implemented in this project so as to improve the structure of the existing fire alarm device and give it new appearance without compromising its primary function..
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE PROJECT
This scope of this project work is to design a fire alarm that will sense the presence of fire where surrounding temperature is above the preset value thereby notifying the occupant in the building.
1 They sound obnoxious and very loudly to alert anyone within the structure that there is fire somewhere.
- The users mighty not be alerted if the power supply fails.
- It can only sense fire in area where it is installed.
- Consultation of electrical and electronics technicians
- Each unit of project will be indicated by block diagram.
- The prices of all components to be used will also be estimated for each unit respectively.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Resistor: Resistor is component that is specifically designed to have a certain amount of resistance. The principle applications of resistor here are to limit current, to divide voltage and, in certain cases, to generate heat.
Capacitor: A capacitor stores electrical energy in the form of an electro static field. Capacitors are widely used to filter AC signal from a variety of circuits. A capacitor stored energy in form of capacitance measured in farad.
Transistor: A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material usually with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit.
Thermistor: A resistor whose resistance varies rapidly and predictably with temperature.
Buzzer: A buzzer is sounding device which converts an audio signal to sound signals.
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