Full Project – Design and construct of a variable 250-Amp electric arc welding machine

Full Project – Design and construct of a variable 250-Amp electric arc welding machine

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1.0 Introduction

Arc welding is a welding process that is used to join metal to metal by using electricity to create enough heat to melt metal, and the melted metals, when cool, result in a binding of the metals. It is a type of welding that uses a welding power supply to create an electric arc between a metal stick (“electrode”) and the base material to melt the metals at the point of contact. Arc welding power supplies can deliver either direct (DC) or alternating (AC) current to the work, while consumable or non-consumable electrodes are used.

The welding area is usually protected by some type of shielding gas (e.g. an inert gas), vapor, or slag. The arc can be either manually or mechanically guided along the line of the join, while the electrode either simply carries the current or conducts the current and melts into the weld pool at the same time to supply filler metal to the join.

1.1 Background Information

The Arc welding machine is the type that uses an electric power as an input, which is being supplied through the primary and then transferred to the secondary winding by induction which can be used to carry out welding work by connecting to the output terminal of the welding cables.

The output of the machine is designed in a way that it can be varied by adjusting the crank of the machines in clockwise or anti-clockwise direction in either to increase or decrease the output current respectively depending on the size of the material it is to be used on.

The major component of the electric arc welding machine is the transformer. The unit consists of a single phase transformer (with tap changing secondary). The transformer is a step down transformer with different tappings at high, moderate and low welding turn cables.

The machine is specially designed for industrial and agricultural welding. It is only powered from A.C power source for all welding.

The unit is designed to operate on single phase 240v A.C. supply and it is mainly a transformer unit. It is capable of operating from 25 Amps socket for most of its output range. The current drawn from the mains supply may exceed the 25 Amps, hence the unit must be provided with 30A switch fuse input as those provided for electric cookers, heaters etc. This connection must be made to the dead side of a 30A circuit. The circuit should not be shared by any other appliance.

The transformer is a conventional-cooled, single phase transformer which has shell type of lamination core and insulated windings of copper coils. In addition, the windings are given double insulation with the use of varnish solution which helps to prevent short-circuiting in the windings.

With the help of Angle iron and lamination core, the core loss and iron loss in the machine is reduced to minimum. They also help to reduce humming in the machine. Hence, efficiency of the machine is greatly improved. John (1984) Electrical machines and their application.

1.2 Problem Statement

With reference to the project, design and construction of an electric arc welding machine, which is designed to bring an end to many problems, encountered by Engineers in the practical field. With the help of arc welding machine, the problem of joining two or more metals together in the department and in the school at large is limited.

1.3 Aim

To design and construct a variable 250amp electric arc welding machine

1.4 Objectives

  1. To design a variable 250A ac arc welding machine that will be use for practical purposes in the department
  2. To ensure that broken metals are brought back to usage with the help of the machine when the need arises.
  3. To serve as a machine tool that can be use inside or outside the school premises at a rent out terms and conditions

1.5 Scope and Limitation

The arc welding machine has different number of ranges depending on individual design and construction. The range can be of 50A, 100A, 150A, 200A, and 250A. The increase in range leads to an increase in capacity and efficiency of the machine.

So this project is not the least or the highest range of the arc welding machine but certain factors has contributed to its limitations to this range.

Some of these problems include financial problems, scarcity of materials, insufficient tools and equipment and stress.



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Full Project – Design and construct of a variable 250-Amp electric arc welding machine