Full Project – Construction of adaptive wireless multi-gas detector unit
The aim of this project is to construct an Adaptive Wireless Multi-Gas Detector Unit using Microcontroller Atmega 328. These mainly aim at preventing gas accidents in homes and industries. The adaptive wireless multi-gas detector unit makes use of a gas sensor placed in the circuit to observe the presence of any toxic gases harmful to human. The sensor detects any toxic gas and sends signal to the microcontroller, the microcontroller sends signal to the buzzer as sound and the wireless channel alerting people around of danger. The usage of this adaptive wireless multi-gas detector unit using microcontroller will largely reduce the accidents in homes and industries. This report deals with construction of adaptive wireless multi-gas detector unit.
When individuals lack proper gas detection monitors to protect them from exposure to gases, and are working remotely without a man-down alarm (actuator) there is a high risk of loss of lives and properties. As oil and gas Industry, Homes and Estate continue to experience a global development, risk from exposure of dangerous gases are more prevalent. There have been many losses of lives and properties over recent years. Gases such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, methane, fluorine, chlorine dioxide and others are released during the usage, exploration and manufacturing process. Phosgene is a highly toxic gas, occupational workers may have accidental exposure. The gas can also be generated inadvertently during fire involving plastics and other chemicals and solvents containing chlorine, which is of concern to emergency responders. Phosgene inhalation may cause initially symptoms of respiratory tract irritation; patients feel fine thereafter, and then die of choking a day later because of buildup of fluid in the lungs (delayed onset non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema). Phosgene exposure is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. But there is a solution: “adaptive wireless multi gas detector”. Laboratories, Homes and Refining facility turns to wireless detection to increase workers safety.
This system is very easy to use and is quite user-friendly. The configuration and set-up of the gas detector is more technical. With this system, industrial hygienists, safety managers, production supervisors and other professionals remotely monitor personnel deployed in hazardous areas.
The idea of a full scale wireless replacement of their existing protocol can be overwhelming.
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The aim of this project is to detect exposure of dangerous gases.
And the objectives are:
- To detect the leakage of gas to homes and industries
- To provide security and safety
- To ease maintenance of machines
- To reduce wastage of gas.
- To detect any smoke
1.3 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
Gas leak detection methods became a concern after the effect of harmful gases on human health were discovered. Before modern electronic sensor, early detection method relied on less precise detectors. Through the 19th and early 20th centuries, coal miners would bring canaries down to the tunnel with them as an early detection system against life-threatening gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and methane. The canary, normally a very songful bird, would stop singing and eventually die if not removed from gases, signaling the miners to exist the mine quickly.
The first gas detector in the industrial age was the flame safety lamp (or Davy lamp) was invented by Sir Humphry Davy of England in 1815 to detect the presence of methane (firedamp) in underground coal mines. The flame safety lamp consisted of an oil flame adjusted to specific height in fresh air. To prevent ignition with the lamps flame was contained within a glass sleeve with a mesh flame arrestor.
The modern era of gas detection started in 1926-1927 with the development of the catalytic combustion sensor by Dr. Oliver Johnson. Dr. Oliver Johnson an employee of Standard Oil Company in California (now Chevron), he begun research and development on a method to detect combustible mixtures in air to help prevent explosion in fuel storage tanks.
The world first gas detection company, Johnson-Williams instruments was formed in 1928 in Palo Alto, by Dr. Oliver Johnston and Phil Williams. In the modern age of gas detection, including making instruments smaller and more portable, development of a portable oxygen detector as well as the first combination instruments that could detect both combustible gases/vapor as well as oxygen .
Before the development of electronic household carbon monoxide detectors in 1980s and 1990s, carbon monoxide presences were detected with a chemically infused paper that turned brown when exposed to the gas. Since then, many electronic technologies and devices have been developed to detect, monitor and alert the leak of wide array of gases .
Originally, detectors were produced to detect a single gas. This constructed system; Adaptive Wireless Multi-gas Detector detects several toxic or combustible gases, or even a combination.
Gas plants, homes and industries explosions have become recurring events across the world, raising questions about public safety. In 2015, an explosion took place in Lagos Nigeria. People were feared dead, before the disaster, there have been other cases in Warri, Delta State, Imo State and Nnewi Anambra State. The loss of lives and properties over the years in Nigeria as a result of gas necessitates the installation of an Adaptive Wireless MultiGas Detector Unit.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT.
- To save lives and properties
- Very much useful for homes and industries to reduce gas accidents
- Use of this system on a large scale can bring significant reduction to loss of lives and properties.
- Residence of homes can sleep peacefully knowing that a monitor is installed of any gas leakage.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE PROJECT
- For the purpose of this project, the wireless unit is designed to have a bandwidth range of less than 10 meters.
- The project is limited to Smartphone application.
- Both gas and temperature sensors cannot work synchronously, so the gas sensor work more accurate.
1.7 PROJECT LAYOUT
In the layout of this report,
Chapter one deals with introduction, aim and objectives, historical background of the project, motivation, significance, and the scope and limitation of the project.
- Chapter two covers the literature review of the main work.
- Chapter three covers the construction of the project.
- Chapter four deals with the results, tests and discussions.
- Chapter five covers the summary, conclusion and recommendation of the project.
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Full Project – Construction of adaptive wireless multi-gas detector unit