Easy Format For Research Methodology with Sample (CHAPTER THREE)





This chapter deals with the methods and procedures used in the study. The strategies adopted in the collection of data are discussed under the following sub-headings, design of the study, area of the study, population of the study, sample size and sampling techniques, sources of data and method of data collection as well as method of data analysis.



         This study adopted the survey research design. According to Nworgu (1999), defines survey research as one in which a group of people or items are studied by collecting analyzing data from only a few or items considered to be representative of the entire group. Thus, this study, the researcher collected data from the management staff and management of Union Bank Plc, Benin Metropolis, Edo.



         This research was to examine the impact of information technology on bank performance with a particular reference to Union Bank Plc, Benin Metropolis, Edo.



The population of the study comprises of all the staff and management shareholders of the Union Bank Plc, Benin Metropolis, Edo State with 60 management staff of the bank.



Sample is the section of element gotten from the population which would be considered for the research work. Sample size for this study was gotten using Taro Yamane formula and simple random technique was used in selecting the sample size to give a fair chance to everybody.

The above Taro Yamane formula being applied to obtain the sample size as:

n       =           N


Where        n       =       Sample Size

N       =       Population

e       =       Level of Significance

1       =       Constant

n       =            60



                              =              60



=            60


=            45



:.    n         =         52



In the course of this research work, two types of data were used.

Primary Data: This is known as Union class information obtained from the respondents through interview, personal observation and presentation of questionnaire to the respondents.

Secondary Data: These are information obtained from the existing work done by various authors such as textbooks; publish journals and also information from internet.



         The method used for data collection was a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire which was divided into two sections A and B was prepared and administered to the staff and management of Union Bank Plc, Benin Metropolis, Edo and the instruction was to tick the right answer from the boxes provided.



         The data collected were analyzed using text and tabular method with simple percentages and tables to reveal the magnitude to the study and presents in a tabular form for consciousness and easy understanding.

Chi-square statistical tool was employed for testing of research hypotheses formulated earlier in chapter one of this study. The Chi-square statistical tool formula is being applied as:

X2      =       ∑(Fo-Fe)2



Where        X2      =       Chi-square

Fo     =       Frequency Observed

Fe     =       Frequency Expected




Accept if the computed chi-square (X2) value is greater than the critical table value and reject if the computed chi-square (X2) value is less than the critical table value.



Research Methods

3.0 Introduction                                                             

The research methodology, which present the techniques and procedures used for this study sets out by considering the design, population, sample size and sampling methods, research questions as well as the analytical tools employed in the analysis and interpretation of data obtained  from this study.

3.1 Research Design                                                              

The research design is mainly concerned with providing a plan study that permits accurate assessment of cause and effect relationship between independent and dependent variable. Research design is a plan, structure and strategy of investigation conceived so as to obtain answer to research questions and to control variances. Among other advantages, research design serves to provide answers on how the research questions and problems are determined, as well as control extraneous variable(s) and the errors that would be expected from randomness or measurements.Asika (2006) defined research design as the process of structuring investigation aimed at identifying variables and their relationship to one another. The design adopted for the study is survey design. This design is a process of examining the effect of the use of accounting information as a tool for management decision making, case study of Dangote Nigeria Plc. Without any attempt to manipulate or control them. In this study, Accounting Information is the independent variable, while Management decision making is the dependent variables. The survey research technique aimed at assessing the positive and negative effects the use of accounting information has on management decision making.

3.2  Re-statement of Research Question

  • Does accounting information have any effect on management decisions?
  • Is there any relationship between the perception of the employees and accounting information of the firm?
  • Does accounting information affect the performance of the company positively or negatively?

3.3 Re-statement of research Hypothesis        

Hypothesis one

Ho: Accounting information does not have any effect on management decision making

Hypothesis Two

Ho: There is no significant relationship between the perception of employees and accounting information

Hypothesis Three

Ho: Accounting information does not have any effect on the company’s performance.

3.4 Population of the Study

A population is made up of all conceivable elements, subjects or observation relating to a particular phenomenon of interest to the researcher. (Asika 2000).

Population is also an aggregation of all elements that share common characteristic. Synonyms of population are universe, census, set etc. (Asika 2000).

However, this study was carried out among the employees of Dangote Nigeria Plc, which serves as a representative of the Manufacturing Industry. Dangote Nigeria plc. Has over 20 branches with two thousand three hundred and fourteen (2314) employees (Dangote Nigeria Plc. Annual Report, 2012). The study is restricted to Dangote in Lagos and Ogun state Nigeria. The study covers branches of Dangote plc in ewekoro local government and Isolo in Ogun and Lagos state respectively.

3.5 Sampling Design& Sample Size

A sample is defined as any part of a population. A sample therefore is a subset of the entire population of any kind. The procedure for drawing samples from a population is known as sampling. Such a sample is thus without bias, a prerequisite for making generalizations about the universe.

There are varieties of sampling techniques that can be employed by any researcher thus; the stratified sampling technique was adopted in this study. The workers of Gt bank were stratified into their respective department and the sample, random sampling technique was used to select the sample size in the branches of Dangote Nigeria.

To determine a sample from a population according to Smith formula, as cited in Asika (2004), is n = 1+Nb2


n= sample size

N= population size

b= maximum acceptable error margin

N= 2314




Thus, a sample size of One Hundred and ten (110) was chosen from the total population.

3.6 Data Collection Instruments

The data required for the research study were generated from primary and secondary source of information. Primary data collection of data from subsets or respondents compared to using data already collected by someone else. The primary data were collected through questionnaire that was administered to employees of Dangote Nigeria

The secondary data were collected from the organization’s news, annual report and other publications. The questionnaire was drafted from the research hypotheses and questions, and was distributed to the upper level managers and lower level managers of Dangote Nigeria.

The questionnaire designed is in two parts; section A requested information, the researcher was able to know the caliber of people who have responded their qualifications and number of working experiences as well as the department in which the respondent works.

The researcher, for easy responses and analysis of data, set out in section B of the questionnaire, questions that deals with the provision of data from which the hypothesis are to be tested.

In the course of trying to provide answer to the researcher’s question, data that will be generated from the questionnaire, will be analyzed, and interpreted, in a tabular form, and conclusion derived.


3.7 Validity of the Research Instrument

Validity can be defined as the ability of the instrument to measure what it is designed to measure (Asika, 2004). For validity of measurement to be established there should be a complete absence of measurement error. To ensure the validation of the research instrument in this study, the context validity was adopted, the questions in the questionnaire were related to the subject matter under investigation, they are unambiguous and it was also attested to, so as to avoid a situation whereby the instrument lacks measurement scale.

Also the sampling of respondents had been done carefully, so as to cover relevant areas. The research instrument in this study also measured the predictive ability in relation to other past and currently validated instrument.

3.8 Reliability of Research Instrument

In order to achieve the reliability of the research instrument, a pilot test was conducted, the researcher administered the questionnaire to a proportion of the sample and others that were not included in the sample so as to ascertain if the questionnaire have the same inference to the respondents and find out if the questions were clearly understood by the respondents.

3.9 Method of Data Analysis

In order to analyze the data collected with the aid of the questionnaire, correlation, standard deviation, and mean were used to analyze the data. The SPSS statistical package was used for analysis in order to minimize any intended error. This is because the statistical tools show the extent and relationship that exist between variables of study.The popular of the study comprise corporate organization owing their essential duty to humanity and because they are scattered all over the country. The study will adopt a sample frame of Dangote Nigeria Plc.

3.10 Limitations of the Methodology

As in the case with all human endeavors, there are some limitations that rob research studies of it perfection: there is no exception in the case of this study. Thus, the level of accuracy in this study is proportional to the availability of information that the respondents gave. Also there is this uncertainty that information given is without bias. Hence, making the information gathered to have some element of errors which may affect the generalization of the findings of the study. However, it should be pointed out that these draw backs are not peculiar to this study alone but to all other studies that use survey method.