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The purpose of the study is to find out the effect of home background on the student’s academic performance in Ovia South LGA of Edo State. The literature review was done through reading of textbooks newspapers and journals the method adopted were the questionnaires. The data got from the questionnaires were collected into figures and percentages which are show in tabular from. The responses from the data collected revealed that the socio-economic of the parents, residence and the size of the family affects the academic performance of students. Finally, recommendations to the above effect of home background on students academic performance in Ovia South West LGA are made and some of that include the following. Parents should try as much as possible to give much affection and encouragement to their children in order, which their children would be motivated which could boost their academic performance parents should have the number of children that they can easily cater for early upbringing of a child plays a vital role in (later) education of the child.




1.1   Background of the study

An education system in any society both reflects and adopts itself to the political and economic circumstances of that society. Nigeria a developing country is not let out in this race to educate her citizens to build her manpower to meet the need of our ever changing world. In accordance with this, various administrations have adopted various policy measures in making sure that the education policy is properly implemented. There had been a change from the old system of education, which was inherited from our colonial masters, to the 6-3-3-4 system. All these are in attempt to establish a good educational system that is geared towards obtaining good performance in educational attainment of students (James, 2008).


However, it is rather paradoxical or true that while some students have good performance, others do not have but do poorly in terms of education. When the students are successful, there is no course for concern but when the students are unsuccessful, it gives course for concern. Some countries like Nigeria have been characterized by this kind of lapses.  Much blame has usually been leveled on the school authority as well as teachers attitude towards teaching. In this regard very few people care to think of other factors which might be responsible for student’s poor academic performance at school. The factors include usefulness and meaningfulness of materials learnt, mental retardation. Student’s age, classroom atmosphere and students home background and so forth. On this account Burt (1937) said that it is convey of backwardness asser5ted that background of a child affects his educational achievement. In the word of Glenn (1976) background may be due to individual courses such as poor health, emotional disturbances and mental retardation. Family background of students determines how the child views himself and the way he views others.

The society is a function of these two factors. In other words, the environment of the child at home determines his behaviour as well as how he relates with others. However, the essential factor inherent in a home or family is the socio-economic, cultural and psychological factors. Culturally, the behavioural pattern among families differs from each other. While in some there is a sound cordial understanding or relationship between parents and children. While in some other, because of the cultural sanctions or taboos they observe their seem to be autocratic atmosphere in the home. This therefore influence students behaviour at school as opined by Musgrave (197) students who have much affection from the parents and guardians tend to perform better in school than those who have less or no affection from their parents emotionally, they may become depressed whish could hinder their academic performance. The socio-economic status of parents is another decisive factor, which could influence student’s performance. It is observed that students from well to do (affluent) home in most cases are more exposed and tend to do better than those from less affluent or very poor homes (Innis,  Hartley, Polesel, & Teese, 2000). Since home is the primary unit and agent of socialization from which the fundamental education of the child begins, the success or failure of any students depends largely on the encouragement by members of the family.



Education generally, is a continuous process of enculturation, which begins from cradle (birth) and ends in grave. The type of education one receives determines his future potentials. Parents and guardians are ill-feeling about the harming rate of poor academic performance of students in school nowadays. What they do eventually is to call the teachers to questions the pupil’s poor performance. Little do they know that other factors apart from teacher’s abilities such as home background do influence pupil’s academic performance? The home being a primary unit of socialization and where most of children learning take place cannot be single or left out in identifying course of poor academic performance of a child.


The objectives of the study are;

  1. To ascertain the effect of the family background on student academic performance
  2. To ascertain the relationship between family size and academic performance
  3. To ascertain the influence of parental motivation on students’ academic achievement.
  4. To ascertain the influence of parental income on students’ academic achievement



The following have been put forward for testing

H0: there is no effect of the family background on student academic performance

H1: there is effect of the family background on student academic performance

H0: there is no relationship between family size and academic performance

H1: there is relationship between family size and academic performance



The role of education in any society is very vital and a systematic study into student’s performance will be of immense use to educational planners, teachers, government officials and any other agency or persons that are interested in the progress of the students. The study is interested in carried out to enable parents acquire the basic knowledge which will help in the laying of good foundation for their children there by having good academic performance. This fact has risen because the home has the primary unit of socialization. Through this study, parents may identify the problems of poor home background and learn ways which will enhance good academic performance of their children. To the educational planners, the study will help them to know that individual differences arise from different home background in educational planning and administration. To guidance and counselling officer in the school, the knowledge of home background will enable him advise his students appropriately.


The scope of the study covers the effect of family background on students academic performance in secondary school. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

  1. a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
  2. b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
  3. c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.


Home: This could be seen as a place where one lives especially with one’s family.

Family: This is a group of people who are related to each other, especially father, mother and children.

Background: The traits of one’s family it can also be seen as the family way of life.

Performance: To carry out something better improve in ones study.



This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

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